Thermoeconomic optimisation of small-scale organic Rankine cycle systems 1 based on screw vs. piston expander maps in waste heat recovery applications

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Title: Thermoeconomic optimisation of small-scale organic Rankine cycle systems 1 based on screw vs. piston expander maps in waste heat recovery applications
Authors: Pantaleo, A
Simpson, M
Rotolo, G
Distaso, E
Oyewunmi, O
Sapin, P
Depalma, P
Markides, C
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The high cost of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems is a key barrier to their implementation in waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. In particular, the choice ofexpansion device has a significant influence on this cost, strongly affecting the economic viabilityof an installation. In this work, numerical simulations and optimisation strategies are used to compare the performance and profitability of small-scale ORC systems using reciprocating-piston orsingle/two-stage screw expanders whenre covering heat from the exhaust gases of a 185-kWinternal combustion engine operating in baseload mode. The study goes beyond previous work by directly comparingthese small-scaleexpanders fora broad range of working fluids, and by exploring the sensitivity of project viability to key parameters such as electricity price and onsite heat demand.For the piston expander, a lumped-massmodel and optimisation based on artificial neural networks are used to generate performance maps, while performance and cost correlations from the literature are used for the screw expanders. The thermodynamic analysisshows that two-stage screw expanders typically deliver more power than either single-stage screw or piston expanders due to their higher conversion efficiencyat the required pressure ratios. The best fluids areacetone and ethanol, as these provide a compromise between the exergy losses in the condenser and in the evaporatorin this application. The maximum net power output isfound to be 17.7kW, from an ORC engine operating withacetone anda two-stage screw expander. On the other hand, the thermoeconomic optimisation shows that reciprocating-piston expandersshow a potential for lowerspecific costs, and sincesuchan expander technology is not mature, especially at these scales, this finding motivates further consideration of this component. A minimum specific investment cost of 1630€/kW is observed for an ORC engine with a piston expander, again with acetone as the working fluid. This system, optimised for minimum cost, also gives the shortest payback time of 4 years at an avoided electricity cost of 0.13€/kWh. Finally, financial appraisals show a high sensitivity of the investment profitability to the value of produced electricity and to the heat-demand intensity. The comparison of these expansion devices, from both thermodynamic and economic perspectives,is of interest to the research community, developers and potential users of next-generation, small-scale ORC systemsfor WHR.
Issue Date: 15-Nov-2019
Date of Acceptance: 8-Sep-2019
ISSN: 0196-8904
Publisher: Elsevier
Journal / Book Title: Energy Conversion and Management
Volume: 200
Replaces: 10044/1/73360
Copyright Statement: Crown Copyright © 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: EP/P004709/1
Keywords: 0906 Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Publication Status: Published
Embargo Date: 2020-09-26
Article Number: ARTN 112053
Online Publication Date: 2019-09-26
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Chemical Engineering

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