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Galanin neurons unite sleep homeostasis and alpha2 adrenergic sedation

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Title: Galanin neurons unite sleep homeostasis and alpha2 adrenergic sedation
Authors: Ma, Y
Miracca, G
Yu, X
Harding, E
Miao, A
Yustos, R
Vyssotski, A
Franks, N
Wisden, W
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Our urge to sleep increases with time spent awake, until sleep becomes inescapable. The sleep following sleep deprivation is longer and deeper, with an increased power of delta (0.5 - 4 Hz) oscillations, a phenomenon termed sleep homeostasis [1-4]. Although widely-expressed genes regulate sleep homeostasis [1, 4-10], and the process is tracked by somnogens and phosphorylation [1, 3, 7, 11-14], at the circuit level sleep homeostasis has remained mysterious. Previously we found that sedation induced with 2 adrenergic agonists (e.g. dexmedetomidine) and sleep homeostasis both depend on the preoptic (PO) hypothalamus [15, 16]. Dexmedetomidine, increasingly used for long-term sedation in intensive care units [17], induces a NREM-like sleep but with undesirable hypothermia [18, 19]. Within the PO, various neuronal subtypes (e.g. GABA/galanin and glutamate/NOS1) induce NREM sleep [20-22] and concomitant body cooling [21, 22]. This could be because NREM sleep’s restorative effects depend on lower body temperature [23, 24]. Here, we show that mice with lesioned PO galanin neurons have reduced sleep homeostasis: in the recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, there is a diminished increase in delta power, and the mice catch up little on lost sleep. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine cannot induce high-power delta oscillations or sustained hypothermia. Some hours after dexmedetomidine administration to wild-type mice there is a rebound in delta power when they enter normal NREM sleep, reminiscent of emergence from torpor. This delta rebound is reduced in mice lacking PO galanin neurons. Thus, sleep homeostasis and dexmedetomidine-induced sedation require PO galanin neurons and likely share common mechanisms.
Issue Date: 7-Oct-2019
Date of Acceptance: 30-Jul-2019
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/72568
DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.087
ISSN: 1879-0445
Publisher: Elsevier (Cell Press)
Start Page: 3315
End Page: 3322.e3
Journal / Book Title: Current Biology
Volume: 29
Issue: 19
Copyright Statement: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: Wellcome Trust
UK DRI Ltd
Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: 107841/Z/15/Z
4050641385
107839/Z/15/Z
107841/Z/15/Z
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Cell Biology
VENTROLATERAL PREOPTIC NUCLEUS
GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP
BODY-TEMPERATURE
DEXMEDETOMIDINE
ADENOSINE
AREA
MODULATION
ACTIVATION
MECHANISMS
AGONIST
NREM
body temperature
dexmedetomidine
galanin
preoptic hypothalamus
sedation
sleep homeostasis
torpor
Developmental Biology
06 Biological Sciences
11 Medical and Health Sciences
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2019-09-19
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Natural Sciences



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