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Widespread reassortment shapes the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus following European invasion

Title: Widespread reassortment shapes the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus following European invasion
Authors: Nomikou, K
Hughes, J
Wash, R
Kellam, P
Breard, E
Zientara, S
Palmarini, M
Biek, R
Mertens, P
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment ‘reassortment’ represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This points to selective constraints possibly caused by functional relationships between individual proteins or genome segments and genome-wide epistatic interactions. Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. We show that the live attenuated vaccines recently used in Europe have repeatedly reassorted with field strains, contributing to their genotypic, and potentially phenotypic, variability. The high degree of plasticity seen in the BTV genome in terms of segment origin suggests that current classification schemes that are based primarily on serotype, which is determined by only a single genome segment, are inadequate. Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses.
Issue Date: 7-Aug-2015
Date of Acceptance: 30-Jun-2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/69579
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005056
ISSN: 1553-7366
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal / Book Title: PLoS Pathogens
Volume: 11
Issue: 8
Copyright Statement: © 2015 Nomikou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Microbiology
Parasitology
Virology
GENOME SEGMENT REASSORTMENT
WESTERN UNITED-STATES
MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY
GENETIC REASSORTMENT
MIXED INFECTION
STRAINS
INFLUENZA
SEROTYPES
HOST
DISEASE
Bluetongue
Bluetongue virus
Europe
Evolution, Molecular
Molecular Sequence Data
Phylogeny
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Reassortant Viruses
0605 Microbiology
1107 Immunology
1108 Medical Microbiology
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: e1005056
Online Publication Date: 2015-08-07
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine



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