FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Citrus-derived flavoring ingredients

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Title: FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Citrus-derived flavoring ingredients
Authors: Cohen, SM
Eisenbrand, G
Fukushima, S
Gooderham, NJ
Guengerich, FP
Hecht, SS
Rietjens, IMCM
Bastaki, M
Davidsen, JM
Harman, CL
McGowen, M
Taylor, SV
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients. This publication is the first in a series and summarizes the evaluation of 54 Citrus-derived NFCs using the procedure outlined in Smith et al. (2005) and updated in Cohen et al. (2018) to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavoring ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of each NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC's chemical constituents into well-defined congeneric groups. The safety of the NFC is evaluated using the well-established and conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. As a result of the application of the procedure, 54 natural flavor complexes derived from botanicals of the Citrus genus were affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavoring ingredients based on an evaluation of each NFC and the constituents and congeneric groups therein.
Issue Date: 1-Feb-2019
Date of Acceptance: 23-Nov-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/66509
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.11.052
ISSN: 0278-6915
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 192
End Page: 218
Journal / Book Title: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Volume: 124
Copyright Statement: © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).
Keywords: Botanical
Natural flavor complex
Safety evaluation
Natural flavor complex
Safety evaluation
0908 Food Sciences
Food Science
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: England
Online Publication Date: 2018-11-24
Appears in Collections:Division of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine

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