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Cognitive enhancement with Salience Network electrical stimulation is influenced by network structural connectivity

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Title: Cognitive enhancement with Salience Network electrical stimulation is influenced by network structural connectivity
Authors: Li, L
Ribeiro Violante, I
Leech, R
Hampshire, A
Opitz, A
McArhur, D
Carmichael, D
Sharp, D
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The Salience Network (SN) and its interactions are important for cognitive control. We have previously shown that structural damage to the SN is associated with abnormal functional connectivity between the SN and Default Mode Network (DMN), abnormal DMN deactivation, and impaired response inhibition, which is an important aspect of cognitive control. This suggests that stimulating the SN might enhance cognitive control. Here, we tested whether non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could be used to modulate activity within the SN and enhance cognitive control. TDCS was applied to the right inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula cortex during performance of the Stop Signal Task (SST) and concurrent functional (f)MRI. Anodal TDCS improved response inhibition. Furthermore, stratification of participants based on SN structural connectivity showed that it was an important influence on both behavioural and physiological responses to anodal TDCS. Participants with high fractional anisotropy within the SN showed improved SST performance and increased activation of the SN with anodal TDCS, whilst those with low fractional anisotropy within the SN did not. Cathodal stimulation of the SN produced activation of the right caudate, an effect which was not modulated by SN structural connectivity. Our results show that stimulation targeted to the SN can improve response inhibition, supporting the causal influence of this network on cognitive control and confirming it as a target to produce cognitive enhancement. Our results also highlight the importance of structural connectivity as a modulator of network to TDCS, which should guide the design and interpretation of future stimulation studies.
Issue Date: 15-Jan-2019
Date of Acceptance: 26-Oct-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/65814
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.10.069
ISSN: 1053-8119
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 425
End Page: 433
Journal / Book Title: NeuroImage
Volume: 185
Copyright Statement: ©2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Sponsor/Funder: National Institute for Health Research
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Wellcome Trust
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Funder's Grant Number: NIHR-RP-011-048
RDA03
RDC04 79560
103045/Z/13/Z
103429/Z/13/Z
103429/Z/13/Z
RDA03_79560
RDC04
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Neurosciences
Neuroimaging
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging
Neurosciences & Neurology
Salience Network
Stop Signal Task
Transcranial direct current stimulation
TDCS
Response inhibition
Cognitive control
White matter tract
Fractional anisotropy
Functional MRI
INFERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS
FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY
RESPONSE-INHIBITION
ANTERIOR CINGULATE
CORTEX
MOTOR
MODULATION
PREDICTS
IMPLEMENTATION
ORIENTATION
11 Medical And Health Sciences
17 Psychology And Cognitive Sciences
Neurology & Neurosurgery
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2018-10-27
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine



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