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Response of photomultiplier tubes to xenon scintillation light

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Title: Response of photomultiplier tubes to xenon scintillation light
Authors: Paredes, BL
Araujo, HM
Froborg, E
Marangou, N
Olcina, I
Sumner, TJ
Taylor, R
Tomas, A
Vacheret, A
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: We present the precision calibration of 35 Hamamatsu R11410-22 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with xenon scintillation light centred near 175 nm. This particular PMT variant was developed specifically for the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) dark matter experiment. A room-temperature xenon scintillation cell coupled to a vacuum cryostat was used to study the full-face PMT response at both room and low temperature ( ∼ −100 °C), in particular to determine the quantum efficiency (QE) and double photoelectron emission (DPE) probability in LZ operating conditions. For our sample with an average QE of (32.4  ±  2.9)% at room temperature, we find a relative improvement of (17.9  ±  5.2)% upon cooling (where uncertainty values refer to the sample standard deviation). The mean DPE probability in response to single vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons is (22.6  ±  2.0)% at low temperature; the DPE increase relative to room temperature, measured here for the first time, was (12.2  ±  3.9)%. Evidence of a small triple photoelectron emission probability ( ∼ 0.6%) has also been observed. Useful correlations are established between these parameters and the QE as measured by the manufacturer. The single VUV photon response is also measured for one ETEL D730/9829QB, a PMT with a more standard bialkali photocathode used in the ZEPLIN-III experiment, for which we obtained a cold DPE fraction of (9.1  ±  0.1)%. Hence, we confirm that this effect is not restricted to the low-temperature bialkali photocathode technology employed by Hamamatsu. This highlights the importance of considering this phenomenon in the interpretation of data from liquid xenon scintillation and electroluminescence detectors, and from many other optical measurements in this wavelength region.
Issue Date: 1-Nov-2018
Date of Acceptance: 26-Apr-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/61995
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.astropartphys.2018.04.006
ISSN: 0927-6505
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 56
End Page: 66
Journal / Book Title: Astroparticle Physics
Volume: 102
Copyright Statement: © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Funder's Grant Number: ST/M003655/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Physics, Particles & Fields
Physics
Photomultipliers
Xenon detectors
Vacuum ultraviolet
Scintillation
Dark matter searches
ALPHA-PARTICLES
LIQUID XENON
RARE-GASES
AR-KR
TEMPERATURE
ABSORPTION
REGION
XE
physics.ins-det
0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
0202 Atomic, Molecular, Nuclear, Particle And Plasma Physics
Nuclear & Particles Physics
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2018-04-27
Appears in Collections:Physics
High Energy Physics
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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