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Emergence of deep convection in the Arctic Ocean under a warming climate

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Title: Emergence of deep convection in the Arctic Ocean under a warming climate
Author(s): Lique, C
Johnson, HL
Plancherel, Y
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The appearance of winter deep mixed layers in the Arctic Ocean under a warming climate is investigated with the HiGEM coupled global climate model. In response to a four times increase of atmospheric CO2 levels with respect to present day conditions, the Arctic Basin becomes seasonally ice-free. Its surface becomes consequently warmer and, on average, slightly fresher. Locally, changes in surface salinity can be far larger (up to 4 psu) than the basin-scale average, and of a different sign. The Canadian Basin undergoes a strong freshening, while the Eurasian Basin undergoes strong salinification. These changes are driven by the spin up of the surface circulation, likely resulting from the increased transfer of momentum to the ocean as sea ice cover is reduced. Changes in the surface salinity field also result in a change in stratification, which is strongly enhanced in the Canadian Basin and reduced in the Eurasian Basin. Reduction, or even suppression, of the stratification in the Eurasian Basin produces an environment that is favourable for, and promotes the appearance of, deep convection near the sea ice edge, leading to a significant deepening of winter mixed layers in this region (down to 1000 m). As the Arctic Ocean is transitioning toward a summer ice-free regime, new dynamical ocean processes will appear in the region, with potentially important consequences for the Arctic Ocean itself and for climate, both locally and on larger scales.
Publication Date: 1-May-2018
Date of Acceptance: 31-Jul-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/60861
DOI: 10.1007/s00382-017-3849-9
ISSN: 0930-7575
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Start Page: 3833
End Page: 3847
Journal / Book Title: Climate Dynamics
Volume: 50
Issue: 9-10
Copyright Statement: © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017. The final publication is available at Springer via https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00382-017-3849-9
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
CIRCULATION MODELS
SURFACE STRESS
CMIP5 MODELS
AMPLIFICATION
SIMULATIONS
IMPACT
TEMPERATURE
FEEDBACKS
GREENLAND
SALINITY
Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
CIRCULATION MODELS
SURFACE STRESS
CMIP5 MODELS
AMPLIFICATION
SIMULATIONS
IMPACT
TEMPERATURE
FEEDBACKS
GREENLAND
SALINITY
0401 Atmospheric Sciences
0405 Oceanography
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2017-08-07
Appears in Collections:Centre for Environmental Policy
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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