Effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA, on hematological malignancies: a systematic review

Title: Effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, EPA and DHA, on hematological malignancies: a systematic review
Authors: Moloudizargari, M
Mortaz, E
Asghari, MH
Adcock, IM
Redegeld, FA
Garssen, J
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have well established anti-cancer properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are among this biologically active family of macromolecules for which various anti-cancer effects have been explained. These PUFAs have a high safety profile and can induce apoptosis and inhibit growth of cancer cells bothin vitroandin vivo, following a partially selective manner. They also increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents by increasing the sensitivity of different cell lines to specific anti-neoplastic drugs. Various mechanisms have been proposed for the anti-cancer effects of these omega-3 PUFAs; however, the exact mechanisms still remain unknown. While numerous studies have investigated the effects of DHA and EPA on solid tumors and the responsible mechanisms, there is no consensus regarding the effects and mechanisms of action of these two FAs in hematological malignancies. Here, we performed a systematic review of the beneficial effects of EPA and DHA on hematological cell lines as well as the findings of relatedin vivostudies and clinical trials. We summarize the key underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic potential of these PUFAs in the treatment of hematological cancers. Differential expression of apoptosis-regulating genes and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gp-x4), varying abilities of different cancerous and healthy cells to metabolize EPA into its more active metabolites and to uptake PUFAS are among the major factors that determine the sensitivity of cells to DHA and EPA. Considering the abundance of data on the safety of these FAs and their proven anti-cancer effects in hematological cell lines and the lack of related human studies, further research is warranted to find ways of exploiting the anticancer effects of DHA and EPA in clinical settings both in isolation and in combination with other therapeutic regimens.
Issue Date: 5-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance: 21-Jan-2018
ISSN: 1949-2553
Publisher: Impact Journals
Start Page: 11858
End Page: 11875
Journal / Book Title: Oncotarget
Volume: 9
Issue: 14
Copyright Statement: © Moloudizargari et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keywords: apoptosis
docosahexaenoic acid
eicosapentaenoic acid
fish oil
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: United States
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Airway Disease
Faculty of Medicine

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