The relationship between M and ML – a review and application to induced seismicity in the Groningen gas field, the Netherlands

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Title: The relationship between M and ML – a review and application to induced seismicity in the Groningen gas field, the Netherlands
Authors: Bommer, JJ
Dost, B
Edwards, B
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The use of local magnitude (M L ) in seismic hazard analyses is a topic of recent debate. In 2 regions of weak - or moderate - seismicity, small earthquakes (characterized by M L ) are 3 commonly used to determine frequency - magnitude distributions (FMD) for probabilistic 4 seismic hazard calculations. However, empirical and theoretical studies on the relation 5 between moment magnitude ( M ) and M L for small earthquakes show a systematic difference between the two below a region-dependent magnitude threshold. This difference ma y introduce bias in the estimation of the frequency of larger events with given M, and consequently seismic hazard. For induced seismicity related to the Groningen gas field, this magnitude threshold is determined to be M ~ 2, with equality between M and ML at higher magnitudes. A quadratic relation between M and M L is derived for 0.5 < M L < 2, in correspondence to recent theoretical studies. While the seismic hazard analysis for Groningen is internally consistent when expressed in terms of M L (with the implicit assumption of equivalence between the two scales), a more physical interpretation of the seismicity model requires transformation of the earthquake catalogue from local to moment magnitude, especially since the dataset currently used in estimating ti me-dependent hazard consists mainly of M L < 2.5 events. We show that measured station effects, derived from M calculations, correspond to predicted model calculations used to determine a ground -motion model for the region.
Date of Acceptance: 5-Feb-2018
DOI: 10.1785/0220170247
ISSN: 0895-0695
Publisher: Seismological Society of America
Journal / Book Title: Seismological Research Letters
Keywords: 0404 Geophysics
Geochemistry & Geophysics
Publication Status: Accepted
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Civil and Environmental Engineering

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