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Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota

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Title: Respiratory Disease following Viral Lung Infection Alters the Murine Gut Microbiota
Authors: Groves, HT
Cuthbertson, L
James, P
Moffatt, MF
Cox, MJ
Tregoning, JS
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota have profound effects on human health. Consequently, there is great interest in identifying, characterizing, and understanding factors that initiate these changes. Despite their high prevalence, studies have only recently begun to investigate how viral lung infections have an impact on the gut microbiota. There is also considerable interest in whether the gut microbiota could be manipulated during vaccination to improve efficacy. In this highly controlled study, we aimed to establish the effect of viral lung infection on gut microbiota composition and the gut environment using mouse models of common respiratory pathogens respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus. This was then compared to the effect of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccination. Both RSV and influenza virus infection resulted in significantly altered gut microbiota diversity, with an increase in Bacteroidetes and a concomitant decrease in Firmicutes phyla abundance. Although the increase in the Bacteroidetes phylum was consistent across several experiments, differences were observed at the family and operational taxonomic unit level. This suggests a change in gut conditions after viral lung infection that favors Bacteroidetes outgrowth but not individual families. No change in gut microbiota composition was observed after LAIV vaccination, suggesting that the driver of gut microbiota change is specific to live viral infection. Viral lung infections also resulted in an increase in fecal lipocalin-2, suggesting low-grade gut inflammation, and colonic Muc5ac levels. Owing to the important role that mucus plays in the gut environment, this may explain the changes in microbiota composition observed. This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota and the gut environment are altered following viral lung infections and that these changes are not observed during vaccination. Whether increased mucin levels and gut inflammation drive, or are a result of, these changes is still to be determined.
Issue Date: 12-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance: 22-Jan-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/57390
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00182
ISSN: 1664-3224
Publisher: FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
Journal / Book Title: FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY
Volume: 9
Copyright Statement: © 2018 Groves, Cuthbertson, James, Moffatt, Cox and Tregoning. This is an open­access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Sponsor/Funder: Commission of the European Communities
Commission of the European Communities
Commission of the European Communities
Funder's Grant Number: 115308
280873
ADITEC-BIOTECH
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Immunology
influenza
respiratory syncytial virus infections
gut microbiota
Bacteroidetes
Firmicutes
Mucin Sac
VIRUS-INFECTION
IMMUNE DEFENSE
MUCIN
SYSTEM
ENTEROTYPES
ALIGNMENT
BACTERIA
MUCOSAL
OBESITY
HEALTH
Mucin 5ac
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00182/full
Article Number: ARTN 182
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Department of Medicine



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