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Multiphase flow characteristics of heterogeneous rocks from CO2 storage reservoirs in the United Kingdom

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Title: Multiphase flow characteristics of heterogeneous rocks from CO2 storage reservoirs in the United Kingdom
Authors: Reynolds, C
Blunt, MJ
Krevor, SC
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: We have studied the impact of heterogeneity on relative permeability and residual trapping for rock samples from the Bunter sandstone of the UK Southern North Sea, the Ormskirk sandstone of the East Irish Sea, and the Captain sandstone of the UK Northern North Sea. Reservoir condition CO2-brine relative permeability measurements were made while systematically varying the ratio of viscous to capillary flow potential, across a range of flow rates, fractional flow, and during drainage and imbibition displacement. This variation resulted in observations obtained across a range of core-scale capillary number math formula. Capillary pressure heterogeneity was quantitatively inferred from 3-D observations of the fluid saturation distribution in the rocks. For each of the rock samples, a threshold capillary number, math formula, was found, below which centimeter-scale layering resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of the fluid phases and a commensurate impact on flow and trapping. The threshold was found to be dependent on the capillary number alone, irrespective of the displacement path (drainage or imbibition) and average fluid saturation in the rock. The impact of the heterogeneity on the relative permeability varied depending on the characteristics of the heterogeneity in the rock sample, whereas heterogeneity increased residual trapping in all samples above what would be expected from the pore-scale capillary trapping mechanism alone. Models of subsurface CO2 injection should use properties that incorporate the impacts of heterogeneity at the flow regime of interest or risk significant errors in estimates of fluid flow and trapping.
Issue Date: 3-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance: 25-Dec-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/56698
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2017WR021651
ISSN: 0043-1397
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Start Page: 729
End Page: 745
Journal / Book Title: Water Resources Research
Volume: 54
Issue: 2
Copyright Statement: © 2018. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Funder's Grant Number: ERI 023708/EP/K000446/1
ERI 023708 (EP/K000446/1)
NE/N016173/1
UKCCSRC 2017 Partner
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Physical Sciences
Environmental Sciences
Limnology
Water Resources
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Marine & Freshwater Biology
SOUTHERN NORTH-SEA
RELATIVE PERMEABILITY
CARBON-DIOXIDE
SUPERCRITICAL CO2/BRINE
GEOLOGICAL STORAGE
CO2/WATER SYSTEM
BUNTER SANDSTONE
2-PHASE FLOW
PORE SCALE
UK
0905 Civil Engineering
0907 Environmental Engineering
1402 Applied Economics
Environmental Engineering
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017WR021651/full
Online Publication Date: 2018-01-05
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Earth Science and Engineering



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