Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars.

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Title: Real world CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars.
Authors: O'Driscoll, R
Stettler, MEJ
Molden, N
Oxley, T
ApSimon, HM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: In this study CO2 and NOx emissions from 149 Euro 5 and 6 diesel, gasoline and hybrid passenger cars were compared using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). The models sampled accounted for 56% of all passenger cars sold in Europe in 2016. We found gasoline vehicles had CO2 emissions 13-66% higher than diesel. During urban driving, the average CO2 emission factor was 210.5 (sd. 47) gkm-1 for gasoline and 170.2 (sd. 34) gkm-1 for diesel. Half the gasoline vehicles tested were Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). Euro 6 GDI engines <1.4ℓ delivered ~17% CO2 reduction compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI). Gasoline vehicles delivered an 86-96% reduction in NOx emissions compared to diesel cars. The average urban NOx emission from Euro 6 diesel vehicles 0.44 (sd. 0.44) gkm-1 was 11 times higher than for gasoline 0.04 (sd. 0.04) gkm-1. We also analysed two gasoline-electric hybrids which out-performed both gasoline and diesel for NOx and CO2. We conclude action is required to mitigate the public health risk created by excessive NOx emissions from modern diesel vehicles. Replacing diesel with gasoline would incur a substantial CO2 penalty, however greater uptake of hybrid vehicles would likely reduce both CO2 and NOx emissions. Discrimination of vehicles on the basis of Euro standard is arbitrary and incentives should promote vehicles with the lowest real-world emissions of both NOx and CO2.
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2017
Date of Acceptance: 24-Nov-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/55296
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.271
ISSN: 0048-9697
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 282
End Page: 290
Journal / Book Title: Science of the Total Environment
Volume: 621
Copyright Statement: © 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Innovate UK
Funder's Grant Number: 132275
Keywords: CO(2)
GDI
NO(x)
PEMS
Passenger cars
Real-world emissions
CO(2)
GDI
NO(x)
PEMS
Passenger cars
Real-world emissions
MD Multidisciplinary
Environmental Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Centre for Environmental Policy
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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