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Platinum Nanocatalyst Amplification: Redefining the Gold Standard for Lateral Flow Immunoassays with Ultra-broad Dynamic Range

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Title: Platinum Nanocatalyst Amplification: Redefining the Gold Standard for Lateral Flow Immunoassays with Ultra-broad Dynamic Range
Authors: Loynachan, C
Thomas, MR
Gray, ER
Richards, DA
Kim, J
MIller, BS
Brookes, JC
Chudasama, V
McKendry, RA
Stevens, MM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Paper-based lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are one of the most widely used point-of-care (PoC) devices; however, their application in early disease diagnostics is often limited due to insufficient sensitivity for the requisite sample sizes and the short time frames of PoC testing. To address this, we developed a serum-stable, nanoparticle catalyst-labeled LFIA with a sensitivity surpassing that of both current commercial and published sensitivities for paper-based detection of p24, one of the earliest and most conserved biomarkers of HIV. We report the synthesis and characterization of porous platinum core–shell nanocatalysts (PtNCs), which show high catalytic activity when exposed to complex human blood serum samples. We explored the application of antibody-functionalized PtNCs with strategically and orthogonally modified nanobodies with high affinity and specificity toward p24 and established the key larger nanoparticle size regimes needed for efficient amplification and performance in LFIA. Harnessing the catalytic amplification of PtNCs enabled naked-eye detection of p24 spiked into sera in the low femtomolar range (ca. 0.8 pg·mL–1) and the detection of acute-phase HIV in clinical human plasma samples in under 20 min. This provides a versatile absorbance-based and rapid LFIA with sensitivity capable of significantly reducing the HIV acute phase detection window. This diagnostic may be readily adapted for detection of other biomolecules as an ultrasensitive screening tool for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and can be capitalized upon in PoC settings for early disease detection.
Issue Date: 7-Dec-2017
Date of Acceptance: 7-Dec-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/54786
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b06229
ISSN: 1936-0851
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Start Page: 279
End Page: 288
Journal / Book Title: ACS Nano
Volume: 12
Issue: 1
Copyright Statement: This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Commission of the European Communities
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: EP/K031953/1
EP/K020641/1
ERC-2013-CoG-616417
538559, MR/P024378/1
Keywords: HIV detection
biorthogonal chemistry
broad dynamic range
enzyme mimic
lateral flow immunoassay
nanobodies
point-of-care
porous platinum core−shell nanoparticles
MD Multidisciplinary
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Materials
Bioengineering
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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