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Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults

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Title: Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults
Authors: Wiffen, PJ
Derry, S
Bell, RF
Rice, ASC
Toelle, TR
Phillips, T
Moore, RA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Background Gabapentin is commonly used to treat neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). This review updates a review published in 2014, and previous reviews published in 2011, 2005 and 2000. Objectives To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Search methods For this update we searched CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase for randomised controlled trials from January 2014 to January 2017. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and online clinical trials registries. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind trials of two weeks’ duration or longer, comparing gabapentin (any route of administration) with placebo or another active treatment for neuropathic pain, with participant-reported pain assessment. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality and potential bias. Primary outcomes were participants with substantial pain relief (at least 50% pain relief over baseline or very much improved on Patient Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC)), or moderate pain relief (at least 30% pain relief over baseline or much or very much improved on PGIC). We performed a pooled analysis for any substantial or moderate benefit. Where pooled analysis was possible, we used dichotomous data to calculate risk ratio (RR) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) or harmful outcome (NNH). We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created ’Summary of findings’ tables. Main results We included four new studies (530 participants), and excluded three previously included studies (126 participants). In all, 37 studies provided information on 5914 participants. Most studies used oral gabapentin or gabapentin encarbil at doses of 1200 mg or more daily in different neuropathic pain conditions, predominantly postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy. Study duration was typically four to 12 weeks. Not all studies reported important outcomes of interest. High risk of bias occurred mainly due to small size (especially in cross-over studies), and handling of data after study withdrawal. In postherpetic neuralgia, more participants (32%) had substantial benefit (at least 50% pain relief or PGIC very much improved) with gabapentin at 1200 mg daily or greater than with placebo (17%) (RR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.1); NNT 6.7 (5.4 to 8.7); 8 studies, 2260 participants, moderate-quality evidence). More participants (46%) had moderate benefit (at least 30% pain relief or PGIC much or very much improved) with gabapentin at 1200 mg daily or greater than with placebo (25%) (RR 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0); NNT 4.8 (4.1 to 6.0); 8 studies, 2260 participants, moderate-quality evidence). In painful diabetic neuropathy, more participants (38%) had substantial benefit (at least 50% pain relief or PGIC very much improved) with gabapentin at 1200 mg daily or greater than with placebo (21%) (RR 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.3); NNT 5.9 (4.6 to 8.3); 6 studies, 1277 participants, moderate-quality evidence). More participants (52%) had moderate benefit (at least 30% pain relief or PGIC much or very much improved) with gabapentin at 1200 mg daily or greater than with placebo (37%) (RR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.6); NNT 6.6 (4.9 to 9.9); 7 studies, 1439 participants, moderate-quality evidence). For all conditions combined, adverse event withdrawals were more common with gabapentin (11%) than with placebo (8.2%) (RR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.7); NNH 30 (20 to 65); 22 studies, 4346 participants, high-quality evidence). Serious adverse events were no more common with gabapentin (3.2%) than with placebo (2.8%) (RR 1.2 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.7); 19 studies, 3948 participants, moderatequality evidence); there were eight deaths (very low-quality evidence). Participants experiencing at least one adverse event were more common with gabapentin (63%) than with placebo (49%) (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.4); NNH 7.5 (6.1 to 9.6); 18 studies, 4279 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Individual adverse events occurred significantly more often with gabapentin. Participants taking gabapentin experienced dizziness (19%), somnolence (14%), peripheral oedema (7%), and gait disturbance (14%). Authors’ conclusions Gabapentin at doses of 1800 mg to 3600 mg daily (1200 mg to 3600 mg gabapentin encarbil) can provide good levels of pain relief to some people with postherpetic neuralgia and peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Evidence for other types of neuropathic pain is very limited. The outcome of at least 50% pain intensity reduction is regarded as a useful outcome of treatment by patients, and the achievement of this degree of pain relief is associated with important beneficial effects on sleep interference, fatigue, and depression, as well as quality of life, function, and work. Around 3 or 4 out of 10 participants achieved this degree of pain relief with gabapentin, compared with 1 or 2 out of 10 for placebo. Over half of those treated with gabapentin will not have worthwhile pain relief but may experience adverse events. Conclusions have not changed since the previous update of this review.
Issue Date: 9-Jun-2017
Date of Acceptance: 17-Jan-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/52908
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007938.pub4
ISSN: 1469-493X
Publisher: Cochrane Collaboration
Journal / Book Title: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Volume: 2017
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: Copyright © 2017 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
Amines [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]
Analgesics [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]
ChronicDisease
Chronic Pain [*drug therapy]
Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]
Fibromyalgia [*drug therapy]
Neuralgia [*drug therapy]
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid [adverse effects; *therapeutic use]
Adult
Humans
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED-TRIAL
DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL
SPINAL-CORD-INJURY
CONTROLLED CLINICAL-TRIAL
GUILLAIN-BARRE-SYNDROME
QUALITY-OF-LIFE
DOUBLE-BLIND
POSTHERPETIC NEURALGIA
GASTRORETENTIVE GABAPENTIN
Amines
Analgesics
Chronic Disease
Chronic Pain
Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids
Diabetic Neuropathies
Fibromyalgia
Neuralgia
Neuralgia, Postherpetic
Numbers Needed To Treat
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
11 Medical And Health Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: CD007938
Appears in Collections:Division of Surgery
Faculty of Medicine



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