Rapid evolution of female-biased genes among four species of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes

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Title: Rapid evolution of female-biased genes among four species of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes
Author(s): Papa, F
Windbichler, N
Waterhouse, RM
Cagnetti, A
D'Amato, R
Persampieri, T
Lawniczak, MKN
Nolan, T
Papathanos, PA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. We find that, in these mosquitoes, in contrast to what has been found in many other organisms, female-biased genes are more rapidly evolving in sequence, expression, and genic turnover than male-biased genes. Our results suggest that this atypical pattern may be due to the combination of sex-specific life history challenges encountered by females, such as blood feeding. Furthermore, female propensity to mate only once in nature in male swarms likely diminishes sexual selection of post-reproductive traits related to sperm competition among males. We also develop a comparative framework to systematically explore tissue- and sex-specific splicing to document its conservation throughout the genus and identify a set of candidate genes for future functional analyses of sex-specific isoform usage. Finally, our data reveal that the deficit of male-biased genes on the X Chromosomes in Anopheles is a conserved feature in this genus and can be directly attributed to chromosome-wide transcriptional regulation that de-masculinizes the X in male reproductive tissues.
Publication Date: 26-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance: 18-Jul-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/51978
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.217216.116
ISSN: 1088-9051
Publisher: COLD SPRING HARBOR LAB PRESS, PUBLICATIONS DEPT
Start Page: 1536
End Page: 1548
Journal / Book Title: GENOME RESEARCH
Volume: 27
Issue: 9
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Papa et al. This article, published in Genome Research, is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International), as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology
Genetics & Heredity
DROSOPHILA-X-CHROMOSOME
HIERARCHICAL CATALOG
MOLECULAR EVOLUTION
POSITIVE SELECTION
EXPRESSION
GAMBIAE
TRANSCRIPTOME
PROTEIN
DEMASCULINIZATION
IDENTIFICATION
06 Biological Sciences
11 Medical And Health Sciences
Bioinformatics
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5580713/
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Natural Sciences



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