Predicting the pore-filling ratio in lumen-impregnated wood

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Title: Predicting the pore-filling ratio in lumen-impregnated wood
Authors: Wu, G
Shah, DU
Janeček, E-R
Burridge, HC
Reynolds, TPS
Fleming, PH
Linden, PF
Ramage, MH
Scherman, OA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Lumen impregnation, unlike most other wood modification methods, is typically assessed by the pore-filling ratio (PFR) (i.e. the fraction of luminal porosity filled) rather than by weight percentage gain (WPG). During lumen impregnation, the impregnants act on the voids in the wood rather than on the solid mass (e.g. cell walls), but the PFR cannot be measured as conveniently as the WPG during processing. Here, it is demonstrated how the PFR can be calculated directly from the WPG if the bulk density of the untreated wood is known. The relationship between the WPG and bulk density was examined experimentally by applying a pressured impregnation on knot-free specimens from Sitka spruce with a liquid mixture of methacrylate monomers. Based on the validated model, it was possible to further study the effect of different process-related parameters, such as hydraulic pressure, on lumen impregnation. Skeletal density is another key parameter in this model, which directly reflects the amount of inaccessible pores and closed lumens, and can be independently determined by helium pycnometry. The permeability can be qualitatively evaluated by PFR as well as skeletal density. For instance, poor permeability of knotty wood, due to the large extractives content around knots, was reflected by a lower skeletal density and inefficient lumen impregnation (low PFR). Although this model was examined on a laboratory scale, it provides guidance on the precise effect of different parameters on lumen impregnation, thereby improving the fundamental understanding of and enabling better control over the modification of wood by impregnation.
Issue Date: 7-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance: 11-Mar-2016
ISSN: 0043-7719
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Start Page: 1277
End Page: 1290
Journal / Book Title: Wood Science and Technology
Volume: 51
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © The Author(s) 2017 This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: 0607 Plant Biology
0705 Forestry Sciences
0912 Materials Engineering
Publication Status: Published online
Open Access location:
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Civil and Environmental Engineering

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