Phylogeography of Toxoplasma gondii points to a South American origin

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Title: Phylogeography of Toxoplasma gondii points to a South American origin
Author(s): Bertranpetit, E
Jombart, T
Paradis, E
Pena, H
Dubey, J
Su, C
Mercier, A
Devillard, S
Ajzenberg, D
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan found ubiquitously in mammals and birds, is the etiologic agent of toxoplasmosis, a disease causing substantial public health burden worldwide, including about 200,000 new cases of congenital toxoplasmosis each year. Clinical severity has been shown to vary across geographical regions, with South America exhibiting the highest burden. Unfortunately, the drivers of these heterogeneities are still poorly understood, and the geographical origin and historical spread of the pathogen worldwide are currently uncertain. A worldwide sample of 168 T. gondii isolates gathered in 13 populations was sequenced for five fragments of genes (140 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 3153 bp per isolate). Phylogeny based on Maximum likelihood methods with estimation of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) and geostatistical analyses were performed for inferring the putative origin of T. gondii. We show that extant strains of the pathogen likely evolved from a South American ancestor, around 1.5 million years ago, and reconstruct the subsequent spread of the pathogen worldwide. This emergence is much more recent than the appearance of ancestral T. gondii, believed to have taken place about 11 My ago, and follows the arrival of felids in this part of the world. We posit that an ancestral lineage of T. gondii likely arrived in South America with felids and that the evolution of oral infectivity through carnivorism and the radiation of felids in this region enabled a new strain to outcompete the ancestral lineage and undergo a pandemic radiation.
Publication Date: 24-Dec-2016
Date of Acceptance: 21-Dec-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/50977
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2016.12.020
ISSN: 1567-1348
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 150
End Page: 155
Journal / Book Title: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Volume: 48
Copyright Statement: © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: MR/K010174/1B
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Infectious Diseases
Toxoplasma gondii
Phylogeography
Maximum likelihood phylogeny
Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA)
Genetic diversity
SAHARAN AFRICAN ORIGIN
OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS
GENETIC DIVERSITY
CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS
PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM
PATTERNS
BRAZIL
DISTANCE
GENOME
Genetic diversity
Maximum likelihood phylogeny
Phylogeography
Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA)
Toxoplasma gondii
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Infectious Diseases
Toxoplasma gondii
Phylogeography
Maximum likelihood phylogeny
Time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA)
Genetic diversity
SAHARAN AFRICAN ORIGIN
OCULAR TOXOPLASMOSIS
GENETIC DIVERSITY
CONGENITAL TOXOPLASMOSIS
PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM
PATTERNS
BRAZIL
DISTANCE
GENOME
0604 Genetics
Microbiology
Publication Status: Published
Embargo Date: 2017-12-24
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine
Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary Care



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