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Excellent treatment outcomes in children treated for tuberculosis under routine operational conditions in Cape Town

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Title: Excellent treatment outcomes in children treated for tuberculosis under routine operational conditions in Cape Town
Authors: Osman, M
Lee, K
Du Preez, K
Dunbar, R
Hesseling, A
Seddon, JA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children globally. It is recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of developing TB, but our understanding of the impact of HIV on risk of mortality for children treated for TB is limited. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality in children treated for drug-susceptible TB. Methods A retrospective analysis of all children (<15 years of age) routinely treated between 2005 and 2012 for drug-susceptible TB in Cape Town was conducted using the programmatic electronic TB treatment database. Survival analysis using Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for death. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of unfavorable outcomes. Results Of 29519 children treated for and notified with TB over the study period, <1% died during TB treatment and 89.5% were cured or completed treatment. The proportion of children with known HIV status increased from 13% in 2005 to 95% in 2012. Children aged <2 years had an increased hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78–5.52) and greater odds of unfavorable outcome (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.44; 95% CI, 1.24–1.66) compared with children aged 10–14 years. HIV-infected children had increased mortality compared to HIV-negative children (aHR, 6.85; 95% CI, 4.60–10.19) and increased odds of unfavorable outcome (aOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.81–2.23). Later year of TB treatment was a protective predictor for both mortality and unfavorable outcome. Conclusions We demonstrate a dramatic improvement in HIV testing in children with TB over time and excellent overall treatment outcomes. HIV infection and young age were associated with increased risk of death and unfavorable outcome.
Issue Date: 5-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance: 5-Jul-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/50072
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix602
ISSN: 1537-6591
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Start Page: 1444
End Page: 1452
Journal / Book Title: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Volume: 65
Issue: 9
Copyright Statement: This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Clinical Infectious Diseases following peer review. The version of record Muhammad Osman, Kevin Lee, Karen Du Preez, Rory Dunbar, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon; Excellent Treatment Outcomes in Children Treated for Tuberculosis Under Routine Operational Conditions in Cape Town, South Africa, Clinical Infectious Diseases, , cix602, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix602
Keywords: childhood
mortality
outcomes
tuberculosis
06 Biological Sciences
11 Medical And Health Sciences
Microbiology
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine



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