Fatal anaphylaxis: mortality rate and risk factors

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Title: Fatal anaphylaxis: mortality rate and risk factors
Authors: Turner, PJ
Jerschow, E
Umasunthar, T
Lin, R
Campbell, DE
Boyle, RJ
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Up to 5% of the US population have suffered anaphylaxis. Fatal outcome is rare, such that even for people with known venom or food allergy, fatal anaphylaxis constitutes less than 1% of total mortality risk. The incidence of fatal anaphylaxis has not increased in line with hospital admissions for anaphylaxis. Fatal drug anaphylaxis may be increasing, but rates of fatal anaphylaxis to venom and food are stable. Risk factors for fatal anaphylaxis vary according to cause. For fatal drug anaphylaxis, previous cardiovascular morbidity and older age are risk factors, with beta-lactam antibiotics, general anaesthetic agents and radiocontrast injections the commonest triggers. Fatal food anaphylaxis most commonly occurs during the second and third decades. Delayed epinephrine administration is a risk factor; common triggers are nuts, seafood, and in children milk. For fatal venom anaphylaxis, risk factors include middle-age, male sex, white race, cardiovascular disease and possibly mastocytosis; insect triggers vary by region. Upright posture is a feature of fatal anaphylaxis to both food and venom. The rarity of fatal anaphylaxis, and the significant quality of life impact of allergic conditions, suggest that quality of life impairment should be a key consideration when making treatment decisions in patients at risk for anaphylaxis.
Issue Date: 6-Sep-2017
Date of Acceptance: 20-Jun-2017
ISSN: 2213-2198
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 1169
End Page: 1178
Journal / Book Title: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice
Volume: 5
Issue: 5
Copyright Statement: © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
National Institute for Health Research
Funder's Grant Number: MR/K010468/1
ICiC funding 2015/16
Keywords: Anaphylaxis
Drug allergy
Food allergy
Insect sting
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine

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