Changes in the intestinal microbiota following the administration of azithromycin in a randomised placebo-controlled trial among infants in south India

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Title: Changes in the intestinal microbiota following the administration of azithromycin in a randomised placebo-controlled trial among infants in south India
Authors: Parker, EPK
Praharaj, I
John, J
Kaliappan, SP
Kampmann, B
Kang, G
Grassly, NC
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Macrolides are among the most widely prescribed antibiotics worldwide. However, their impact on the gut’s bacterial microbiota remains uncertain. We characterised the intestinal microbiota in 6–11 month-old infants in India who received a 3-day course of azithromycin or placebo during a randomised trial of oral poliovirus vaccine immunogenicity (CTRI/2014/05/004588). In 60 infants per study arm, we sequenced the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in stool samples collected before and 12 days after finishing treatment. We also tested for the presence of common bacterial, viral, and eukaryotic enteropathogens in the same samples using real-time PCR in a Taqman array card (TAC) format. Azithromycin induced a modest decline in microbiota richness and a shift in taxonomic composition driven by a reduction in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia (specifically Akkermansia muciniphila). The former phylum includes pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and Campylobacter spp. that declined in prevalence based on the TAC assay. These findings differ from previous observations among older children and adults in Europe and North America, suggesting that the effects of azithromycin on the bacterial flora may be specific to the age and geographic setting of its recipients.
Issue Date: 23-Aug-2017
Date of Acceptance: 19-Jun-2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal / Book Title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 7
Copyright Statement: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Te images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit © The Author(s) 2017
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Funder's Grant Number: Theme Leader Vaccinology
Keywords: Science & Technology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: 9168
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary Care

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