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Functional adaptation of the calcaneus in historical foot binding

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Title: Functional adaptation of the calcaneus in historical foot binding
Authors: Reznikov, N
Phillips, C
Cooke, M
Garbout, A
Ahmed, F
Stevens, MM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The normal structure of human feet is optimized for shock dampening during walking and running. Foot binding was a historical practice in China aimed at restricting the growth of female feet for aesthetic reasons. In a bound foot the shock-dampening function normally facilitated by the foot arches is withdrawn, resulting in the foot functioning as a rigid extension of the lower leg. An interesting question inspiring this study regards the nature of adaptation of the heel bone to this nonphysiological function using the parameters of cancellous bone anisotropy and 3D fabric topology and a novel intertrabecular angle (ITA) analysis. We found that the trabecular microarchitecture of the normal heel bone, but not of the bound foot, adapts to function by increased anisotropy and preferred orientation of trabeculae. The anisotropic texture in the normal heel bone consistently follows the physiological stress trajectories. However, in the bound foot heel bone the characteristic anisotropy pattern fails to develop, reflecting the lack of a normal biomechanical input. Moreover, the basic topological blueprint of cancellous bone investigated by the ITA method is nearly invariant in both normal and bound foot. These findings suggest that the anisotropic cancellous bone texture is an acquired characteristic that reflects recurrent loading conditions; conversely, an inadequate biomechanical input precludes the formation of anisotropic texture. This opens a long-sought-after possibility to reconstruct bone function from its form. The conserved topological parameters characterize the generic 3D fabric of cancellous bone, which is to a large extent independent of its adaptation to recurrent loading and perhaps determines the mechanical competence of trabecular bone regardless of its functional adaptation. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Issue Date: 6-Jul-2017
Date of Acceptance: 31-May-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/48868
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3185
ISSN: 1523-4681
Publisher: American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Start Page: 1915
End Page: 1925
Journal / Book Title: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume: 32
Issue: 9
Copyright Statement: © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sponsor/Funder: Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: 098411/Z/12/Z
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Endocrinology & Metabolism
FOOT
BONE ADAPTATION
INTER-TRABECULAR ANGLE
microCT
STRUCTURE-FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP
HUMAN PROXIMAL FEMUR
TRABECULAR BONE
CANCELLOUS BONE
CORTICAL BONE
ARCHITECTURE
ONTOGENY
WOLFF
SHAPE
LAW
MICROCT
11 Medical And Health Sciences
06 Biological Sciences
09 Engineering
Anatomy & Morphology
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbmr.3185/abstract
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Materials
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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