Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale

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Title: Simultaneous topographical, electrical and optical microscopy of optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale
Author(s): Kumar, N
Zoladek-Lemanczyk, A
Guilbert, AAY
Su, W
Tuladhar, SM
Kirchartz, T
Schroeder, BC
McCulloch, I
Nelson, J
Roy, D
Castro, FA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Novel optoelectronic devices rely on complex nanomaterial systems where the nanoscale morphology and local chemical composition are critical to performance. However, the lack of analytical techniques that can directly probe these structure–property relationships at the nanoscale presents a major obstacle to device development. In this work, we present a novel method for non-destructive, simultaneous mapping of the morphology, chemical composition and photoelectrical properties with <20 nm spatial resolution by combining plasmonic optical signal enhancement with electrical-mode scanning probe microscopy. We demonstrate that this combined approach offers subsurface sensitivity that can be exploited to provide molecular information with a nanoscale resolution in all three spatial dimensions. By applying the technique to an organic solar cell device, we show that the inferred surface and subsurface composition distribution correlates strongly with the local photocurrent generation and explains macroscopic device performance. For instance, the direct measurement of fullerene phase purity can distinguish between high purity aggregates that lead to poor performance and lower purity aggregates (fullerene intercalated with polymer) that result in strong photocurrent generation and collection. We show that the reliable determination of the structure–property relationship at the nanoscale can remove ambiguity from macroscopic device data and support the identification of the best routes for device optimisation. The multi-parameter measurement approach demonstrated herein is expected to play a significant role in guiding the rational design of nanomaterial-based optoelectronic devices, by opening a new realm of possibilities for advanced investigation via the combination of nanoscale optical spectroscopy with a whole range of scanning probe microscopy modes.
Publication Date: 12-Jan-2017
Date of Acceptance: 12-Dec-2016
ISSN: 2040-3364
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Start Page: 2723
End Page: 2731
Journal / Book Title: Nanoscale
Volume: 9
Issue: 8
Copyright Statement: © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Sponsor/Funder: The Royal Society
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Funder's Grant Number: WRMA09FT/HLL
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Chemistry, Multidisciplinary
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Physics, Applied
Science & Technology - Other Topics
Materials Science
Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
10 Technology
02 Physical Sciences
03 Chemical Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Embargo Date: 2018-01-12
Appears in Collections:Physics
Experimental Solid State
Centre for Environmental Policy
Faculty of Natural Sciences

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