Extracellular vesicles in the tumor microenvironment: therapeutic resistance, clinical biomarkers and targeting strategies

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Title: Extracellular vesicles in the tumor microenvironment: therapeutic resistance, clinical biomarkers and targeting strategies
Authors: Han, L
Xu, J
Xu, Q
Zhang, B
Lam, EW
Sun, Y
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Numerous studies have proved that cell-nonautonomous regulation of neoplastic cells is a distinctive and essential characteristic of tumorigenesis. Two way communications between the tumor and the stroma, or within the tumor significantly influence disease progression and modify treatment responses. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), malignant cells utilize paracrine signaling initiated by adjacent stromal cells to acquire resistance against multiple types of anticancer therapies, wherein extracellular vesicles (EVs) substantially promote such events. EVs are nanoscaled particles enclosed by phospholipid bilayers, and can mediate intercellular communications between cancerous cells and the adjacent microenvironment to accelerate pathological proceeding. Here we review the most recent studies of EV biology and focus on key cell lineages of the TME and their EV cargoes that are biologically active and responsible for cancer resistance, including proteins, RNAs, and other potentially essential components. Since EVs are emerging as novel but critical elements in establishing and maintaining hallmarks of human cancer, timely and insightful understanding of their molecular properties and functional mechanisms would pave the road for clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and effective targeting in the global landscape of precision medicine. Further, we address the potential of EVs as promising biomarkers in cancer clinics and summarize the technical improvements in EV preparation, analysis, and imaging. We highlight the practical issues that should be exercised with caution to guide the development of targeting agents and therapeutic methodologies to minimize cancer resistance driven by EVs, thereby allowing to effectively control the early steps of disease exacerbation.
Issue Date: 6-Jun-2017
Date of Acceptance: 22-May-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/48677
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/med.21453
ISSN: 1098-1128
Publisher: Wiley
Start Page: 1318
End Page: 1349
Journal / Book Title: Medicinal Research Reviews
Volume: 37
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is the accepted version of the following article. which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/med.21453/abstract
Sponsor/Funder: Breast Cancer Now
Breast Cancer Now
Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: 2012NovemberPhD016
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Chemistry, Medicinal
Pharmacology & Pharmacy
extracellular vesicle
tumor microenvironment
therapeutic resistance
diagnosis and prognosis
targeting strategy
0304 Medicinal And Biomolecular Chemistry
1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Medicinal & Biomolecular Chemistry
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Division of Surgery
Division of Cancer
Faculty of Medicine

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