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Planck 2015 results XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity

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Title: Planck 2015 results XIV. Dark energy and modified gravity
Authors: Ade, PAR
Aghanim, N
Arnaud, M
Ashdown, M
Aumont, J
Baccigalupi, C
Banday, AJ
Barreiro, RB
Bartolo, N
Battaner, E
Battye, R
Benabed, K
Benoit, A
Benoit-Levy, A
Bernard, J-P
Bersanelli, M
Bielewicz, P
Bock, JJ
Bonaldi, A
Bonavera, L
Bond, JR
Borrill, J
Bouchet, FR
Bucher, M
Burigana, C
Butler, RC
Calabrese, E
Cardoso, J-F
Catalano, A
Challinor, A
Chamballu, A
Chiang, HC
Christensen, PR
Church, S
Clements, DL
Colombi, S
Colombo, LPL
Combet, C
Couchot, F
Coulais, A
Crill, BP
Curto, A
Cuttaia, F
Danese, L
Davies, RD
Davis, RJ
De Bernardis, P
De Rosa, A
De Zotti, G
Delabrouille, J
Desert, F-X
Diego, JM
Dole, H
Donzelli, S
Dore, O
Douspis, M
Ducout, A
Dupac, X
Efstathiou, G
Elsner, F
Ensslin, TA
Eriksen, HK
Fergusson, J
Finelli, F
Forni, O
Frailis, M
Fraisse, AA
Franceschi, E
Frejsel, A
Galeotta, S
Galli, S
Ganga, K
Giard, M
Giraud-Heraud, Y
Gjerlow, E
Gonzalez-Nuevo, J
Gorski, KM
Gratton, S
Gregorio, A
Gruppuso, A
Gudmundsson, JE
Hansen, FK
Hanson, D
Harrison, DL
Heavens, A
Helou, G
Henrot-Versille, S
Hernandez-Monteagudo, C
Herranz, D
Hildebrandt, SR
Hivon, E
Hobson, M
Holmes, WA
Hornstrup, A
Hovest, W
Huang, Z
Huffenberger, KM
Hurier, G
Jaffe, AH
Jaffe, TR
Jones, WC
Juvela, M
Keihanen, E
Keskitalo, R
Kisner, TS
Knoche, J
Kunz, M
Kurki-Suonio, H
Lagache, G
Lahteenmaki, A
Lamarre, J-M
Lasenby, A
Lattanzi, M
Lawrence, CR
Leonardi, R
Lesgourgues, J
Levrier, F
Lewis, A
Liguori, M
Lilje, PB
Linden-Vornle, M
Lopez-Caniego, M
Lubin, PM
Ma, Y-Z
Macias-Perez, JF
Maggio, G
Maino, D
Mandolesi, N
Mangilli, A
Marchini, A
Maris, M
Martin, PG
Martinelli, M
Martinez-Gonzalez, E
Masi, S
Matarrese, S
McGehee, P
Meinhold, PR
Melchiorri, A
Mendes, L
Mennella, A
Migliaccio, M
Mitra, S
Miville-Deschenes, M-A
Moneti, A
Montier, L
Morgante, G
Mortlock, D
Moss, A
Munshi, D
Murphy, JA
Narimani, A
Naselsky, P
Nati, F
Natoli, P
Netterfield, CB
Norgaard-Nielsen, HU
Noviello, F
Novikov, D
Novikov, I
Oxborrow, CA
Paci, F
Pagano, L
Pajot, F
Paoletti, D
Pasian, F
Patanchon, G
Pearson, TJ
Perdereau, O
Perotto, L
Perrotta, F
Pettorino, V
Piacentini, F
Piat, M
Pierpaoli, E
Pietrobon, D
Plaszczynski, S
Pointecouteau, E
Polenta, G
Popa, L
Pratt, GW
Prezeau, G
Prunet, S
Puget, J-L
Rachen, JP
Reach, WT
Rebolo, R
Reinecke, M
Remazeilles, M
Renault, C
Renzi, A
Ristorcelli, I
Rocha, G
Rosset, C
Rossetti, M
Roudier, G
Rowan-Robinson, M
Rubino-Martin, JA
Rusholme, B
Salvatelli, V
Sandri, M
Santos, D
Savelainen, M
Savini, G
Schaefer, BM
Scott, D
Seiffert, MD
Shellard, EPS
Spencer, LD
Stolyarov, V
Stompor, R
Sudiwala, R
Sunyaev, R
Sutton, D
Suur-Uski, A-S
Sygnet, J-F
Tauber, JA
Terenzi, L
Toffolatti, L
Tomasi, M
Tristram, M
Tucci, M
Tuovinen, J
Valenziano, L
Valiviita, J
Van Tent, B
Viel, M
Vielva, P
Villa, F
Wade, LA
Wandelt, BD
Wehus, IK
White, M
Yvon, D
Zacchei, A
Zonca, A
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: We study the implications of Planck data for models of dark energy (DE) and modified gravity (MG) beyond the standard cosmological constant scenario. We start with cases where the DE only directly affects the background evolution, considering Taylor expansions of the equation of state w(a), as well as principal component analysis and parameterizations related to the potential of a minimally coupled DE scalar field. When estimating the density of DE at early times, we significantly improve present constraints and find that it has to be below ~2% (at 95% confidence) of the critical density, even when forced to play a role for z < 50 only. We then move to general parameterizations of the DE or MG perturbations that encompass both effective field theories and the phenomenology of gravitational potentials in MG models. Lastly, we test a range of specific models, such as k-essence, f(R) theories, and coupled DE. In addition to the latest Planck data, for our main analyses, we use background constraints from baryonic acoustic oscillations, type-Ia supernovae, and local measurements of the Hubble constant. We further show the impact of measurements of the cosmological perturbations, such as redshift-space distortions and weak gravitational lensing. These additional probes are important tools for testing MG models and for breaking degeneracies that are still present in the combination of Planck and background data sets. All results that include only background parameterizations (expansion of the equation of state, early DE, general potentials in minimally-coupled scalar fields or principal component analysis) are in agreement with ΛCDM. When testing models that also change perturbations (even when the background is fixed to ΛCDM), some tensions appear in a few scenarios: the maximum one found is ~2σ for Planck TT+lowP when parameterizing observables related to the gravitational potentials with a chosen time dependence; the tension increases to, at most, 3σ when external data sets are included. It however disappears when including CMB lensing.
Issue Date: 20-Sep-2016
Date of Acceptance: 19-Feb-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/48120
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201525814
ISSN: 1432-0746
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Journal / Book Title: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Volume: 594
Issue: October 2016
Copyright Statement: © 2016 ESO
Sponsor/Funder: Imperial College Trust
Science and Technology Facilities Council
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Funder's Grant Number: N/A
ST-N000838
ST/N000838/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Astronomy & Astrophysics
dark energy
cosmic background radiation
cosmology: theory
gravitation
BARYON ACOUSTIC-OSCILLATIONS
REDSHIFT-SPACE DISTORTIONS
MATTER POWER SPECTRUM
COSMOLOGICAL PERTURBATION-THEORY
MAIN GALAXY SAMPLE
HUBBLE CONSTANT
GROWTH-RATE
CFHTLENS
MODEL
QUINTESSENCE
astro-ph.CO
0201 Astronomical And Space Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: ARTN A14
Appears in Collections:Physics
Astrophysics
Faculty of Natural Sciences



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