Two-dimensional model of smouldering combustion using multi-layer cellular automaton: The role of ignition location and direction of airflow

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Title: Two-dimensional model of smouldering combustion using multi-layer cellular automaton: The role of ignition location and direction of airflow
Author(s): Fernandez-Anez, N
Christensen, K
Rein, G
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Smouldering combustion is one of the most common and persistent fire hazards of reactive porous media, such as biomass. In this work, a two-dimensional multi-layer cellular automaton has been developed to study the process of smouldering and the roles of both the ignition location and the direction of airflow for generic biomass. Three different configurations are studied: line front, with forward and opposed airflow respectively, and radial front. The first two configurations simulate ignition of one edge of the sample, while the radial front simulates ignition of a spot at the centre of the sample. The resulting spread patterns of line vs. radial front are significantly different. Furthermore, when smouldering occurs with similar characteristics, where both line front and radial front are self-sustained, the smouldering radial front has a higher growth rate than the line front. However, in the studied cases where enough oxygen is always available for oxidation, the direction of the airflow does not influence the spread of the smouldering front, and the line front with forward and opposed airflow present similar behaviour. Finally, two non-zero minimum values have been detected for self-sustained spread according to the moisture of the fuel (probability of drying) and its tendency for thermal degradation (probability of pyrolysis). This model provides a powerful but simple way of reproducing the complex dynamics of smouldering processes which can be used to investigate different scenarios.
Publication Date: 14-Apr-2017
Date of Acceptance: 15-Mar-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/45612
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.009
ISSN: 0379-7112
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 243
End Page: 251
Journal / Book Title: Fire Safety Journal
Volume: 91
Sponsor/Funder: Research Council of Norway
Funder's Grant Number: EMRIS - Viadar Frette
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Keywords: Science & Technology
Technology
Engineering, Civil
Materials Science, Multidisciplinary
Engineering
Materials Science
Cellular automata
Modelling
Fire
WILDFIRES
MOISTURE
KINETICS
PEAT
0904 Chemical Engineering
Civil Engineering
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Mechanical Engineering



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