Is there a role for epigenetic enhancement of immunomodulatory approaches to cancer treatment?

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Title: Is there a role for epigenetic enhancement of immunomodulatory approaches to cancer treatment?
Authors: Flower, KJ
Ghaem-Maghami, S
Brown, R
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy relies on the ability of the host immune system to recognise the cancer as non-self and eliminate it from the body. Whilst this is an extremely fertile area of medical research, with positive clinical trials showing durable responses, attention must be paid to the subset of patients that do not respond to these treatments. Immune surveillance and immunoediting by the host could itself select for immune-evasive tumour cells during tumour development leading to immunotherapy resistance. One such mechanism of non-efficacy or resistance is the epigenetic silencing of a specific gene required in the immunotherapy response pathway. Epigenetics is the study of the control of expression patterns in a cell via mechanisms not involving a change in DNA sequence. All tumour types show aberrant epigenetic regulation of genes involved in all the hallmarks of cancer, including immunomodulation. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in maintenance of epigenetic states is another important area of research for new treatment strategies for cancer. Could epigenetic therapies be used to successfully enhance the action of immunomodulatory agents in cancer, and are they acting in the way we imagine? An understanding of the effects of epigenetic therapies on immunological pathways in both the tumour and host cells, especially the tumour microenvironment, will be essential to further develop such combination approaches.
Issue Date: 5-Feb-2017
Date of Acceptance: 30-Sep-2016
ISSN: 1873-5576
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
Journal / Book Title: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Volume: 17
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Bentham Science Publishers .
Sponsor/Funder: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Funder's Grant Number: RDB01 79560
RDB01 79560
Keywords: cancer immunotherapy
epigenetic enhancement
Oncology & Carcinogenesis
0304 Medicinal And Biomolecular Chemistry
1112 Oncology And Carcinogenesis
1115 Pharmacology And Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: Netherlands
Appears in Collections:Division of Surgery
Division of Cancer
Faculty of Medicine

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