Role of microbiome in the pathophysiology and disease course of asthma

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Title: Role of microbiome in the pathophysiology and disease course of asthma
Authors: Singanayagam, A
Ritchie, AI
Johnston, SL
Item Type: Journal Article
Publication Date: 2018-01-01T07:00:15Z
Abstract: Purpose of review: The emergence of next-generation 16S rRNA sequencing techniques has facilitated a more detailed study of the body's microbiota and led to renewed interest in the association between microbial exposure and asthma inception. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that the respiratory tract and intestinal microbiota contribute to asthma pathogenesis and progression. Recent findings: Human studies have revealed associations between the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the respiratory tract in early life and subsequent risk of allergic sensitization and asthma. Similarly, alterations in the intestinal microbiota of neonates have also been shown to precede the development of asthma. Emerging evidence suggests that the lung microbiota is dysregulated in asthma with specific changes in bacterial diversity and community composition according to severity and phenotype. Studies using germ-free mice have been invaluable in moving our understanding from correlation to causation by demonstrating a mechanistic link between the neonatal microbiota and the development of allergic airway inflammation. Summary: An expanding body of literature supports the hypothesis that early life microbial exposures and bacterial communities within the lung and/or intestine play an important role in shaping early immunological development. Perturbations in the microbiota may promote immune defects associated with the development of asthma and allergic sensitization.
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2017
Date of Acceptance: 1-Jan-2017
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/45065
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000333
ISSN: 1070-5287
Publisher: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Start Page: 41
End Page: 47
Journal / Book Title: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Volume: 23
Issue: 1
Copyright Statement: © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, Issue: Volume 23(1), January 2017, p 41–47, available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000333
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Respiratory System
asthma
bacteria
microbiome
pathophysiology
RESPIRATORY-INFECTION
ALLERGIC RHINITIS
CHILDHOOD ASTHMA
CONTROLLED-TRIAL
SCHOOL-AGE
EARLY-LIFE
CHILDREN
AIRWAY
LACTOBACILLUS
EXPOSURE
Respiratory System
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine



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