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MiRNAs in β-Cell development, identity, and disease.

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Title: MiRNAs in β-Cell development, identity, and disease.
Authors: Martinez-Sanchez, A
Rutter, GA
Latreille, M
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Pancreatic β-cells regulate glucose metabolism by secreting insulin, which in turn stimulates the utilization or storage of the sugar by peripheral tissues. Insulin insufficiency and a prolonged period of insulin resistance are usually the core components of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although, decreased insulin levels in T2D have long been attributed to a decrease in β-cell function and/or mass, this model has recently been refined with the recognition that a loss of β-cell "identity" and dedifferentiation also contribute to the decline in insulin production. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that display tissue-specific expression patterns and maintain the differentiated state of somatic cells. During the past few years, great strides have been made in understanding how miRNA circuits impact β-cell identity. Here, we review current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in regulating the acquisition of the β-cell fate during development and in maintaining mature β-cell identity and function during stress situations such as obesity, pregnancy, aging, or diabetes. We also discuss how miRNA function could be harnessed to improve our ability to generate β-cells for replacement therapy for T2D.
Issue Date: 11-Jan-2017
Date of Acceptance: 21-Dec-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/44855
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2016.00226
ISSN: 1664-8021
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Journal / Book Title: Frontiers in Genetics
Volume: 7
Issue: January 2017
Copyright Statement: © 2017 Martinez-Sanchez, Rutter and Latreille. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: MR/K001981/1
098424/Z/12/ZR
Keywords: cellular identity
diabetes
gene expression
insulin
microRNAs
pancreatic β-cells
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: Switzerland
Article Number: 226
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine



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