|Abstract: ||Climate change threatens food security and livelihoods throughout the world. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, developed countries have committed to providing additional resources for adaptation to climate change in developing countries. This thesis explores how this finance can be most effective. Importantly, a multi-level case study approach was adopted because this enabled institutional arrangements for adaptation finance to be explored at multiple scales (international, national and local-level). The national case study of Bangladesh was selected as a country highly vulnerable to climate change impacts including sea level rise and intense cyclones, whilst a local-level case study was also selected in coastal Kalapara. A criteria-based framework for analysis was adopted to analyse the three levels.
At the local-level, day labourers, many of whom owned no land, were found to be particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. There was evidence of climate-related poverty traps and many households found it extremely difficult to recover from severe cyclones. However, a recent community-based adaptation project had engaged with local government and built infrastructure to protect croplands. At national-level, priorities aligned well with those identified in the local case study, but concerns were expressed regarding national ownership and capacity. At international-level, concerns were expressed about the lack of transparency and stakeholder engagement in decision-making on climate finance. There seemed to be more progress against criteria of ownership and equity at local-level. A set of policy recommendations have been developed, including the need to mainstream gender into adaptation planning at all levels, and the need for climate funds to engage more fully with local government. Future research is required on how to strengthen synergies between adaptation and mitigation, whilst exploring a wider range of case studies could provide useful insights for the Green Climate Fund.|