Incorporating failures of System Protection Schemes into power system operation

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Title: Incorporating failures of System Protection Schemes into power system operation
Author(s): Calvo, JL
Tindemans, SH
Strbac, G
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The power transfer capability of existing transmission network s can be enhanced through the use of automated system protection schemes (SPS), which rapidly respond to disturbances on the network to keep the system’s varia bles wit hin operational bounds . However, r eliance on such schemes may expose the network to large impacts – including blackouts – if the SPS does not respond as designed, so the deployment of SPS should balance risks and benefits. This paper formulates a risk - base d cost - benefit framework that allows the operator to strike an optimal balance between constraint costs and risks of demand curtailment due to malfunctioning SPS . It is applied to a simple 4 - bus power system inspired by the GB network, for which an exact o ptimisation problem can be formulated. A component - based dependability model is developed for the SPS to determine its failure modes and associated probabilities. The resulting cost - minimisation problem is solved for a range of operating conditions and SPS reliability levels . The results consistently show cost savings from the use of an SPS, even if it is highly unreliable, when a hedging strategy may be used. The optimal solution is highly sensitive to the problem parameters, but it is demonstrated that op timal operational strategies are associated with particular SPS outcome s . This finding may be used as empirical guidance to develop operational strategies for complex networks with unreliable SPS.
Publication Date: 29-Oct-2016
Date of Acceptance: 25-Oct-2016
ISSN: 2352-4677
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 98
End Page: 110
Journal / Book Title: Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks
Volume: 8
Copyright Statement: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Available open acces under a CC-BY licence (
Sponsor/Funder: Commission of the European Communities
National Grid Electricity Transmission Plc
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Funder's Grant Number: PIEF-GA-2010-274387
PO 3200342629/ TAO/22046
R96051 - EP/K036173/1
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location:
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Centre for Environmental Policy
Faculty of Natural Sciences

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