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Patterns of domestic exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter in households using biomass fuel in Janakpur, Nepal

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Title: Patterns of domestic exposure to carbon monoxide and particulate matter in households using biomass fuel in Janakpur, Nepal
Authors: Bartington, SE
Bakolis, I
Devakumar, D
Kurmi, OP
Gulliver, J
Chaube, G
Manandhar, DS
Saville, NM
Costello, A
Osrin, D
Hansell, AL
Ayres, JG
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Household Air Pollution (HAP) from biomass cooking fuels is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income settings worldwide. In Nepal the use of open stoves with solid biomass fuels is the primary method of domestic cooking. To assess patterns of domestic air pollution we performed continuous measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate Matter (PM2.5) in 12 biomass fuel households in Janakpur, Nepal. We measured kitchen PM2.5 and CO concentrations at one-minute intervals for an approximately 48-h period using the TSI DustTrak II 8530/SidePak AM510 (TSI Inc, St. Paul MN, USA) or EL-USB-CO data logger (Lascar Electronics, Erie PA, USA) respectively. We also obtained information regarding fuel, stove and kitchen characteristics and cooking activity patterns. Household cooking was performed in two daily sessions (median total duration 4 h) with diurnal variability in pollutant concentrations reflecting morning and evening cooking sessions and peak concentrations associated with fire-lighting. We observed a strong linear relationship between PM2.5 measurements obtained by co-located photometric and gravimetric monitoring devices, providing local calibration factors of 4.9 (DustTrak) and 2.7 (SidePak). Overall 48-h average CO and PM2.5 concentrations were 5.4 (SD 4.3) ppm (12 households) and 417.6 (SD 686.4) μg/m(3) (8 households), respectively, with higher average concentrations associated with cooking and heating activities. Overall average PM2.5 concentrations and peak 1-h CO concentrations exceeded WHO Indoor Air Quality Guidelines. Average hourly PM2.5 and CO concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.52), suggesting that CO has limited utility as a proxy measure for PM2.5 exposure assessment in this setting. Domestic indoor air quality levels associated with biomass fuel combustion in this region exceed WHO Indoor Air Quality standards and are in the hazardous range for human health.
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2016
Date of Acceptance: 27-Aug-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/41719
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.074
ISSN: 1873-6424
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 38
End Page: 45
Journal / Book Title: Environmental Pollution
Volume: 220
Issue: Part A
Copyright Statement: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: Public Health England
Funder's Grant Number: N/A
Keywords: Biomass
Carbon monoxide
Exposure assessment
Household air pollution
Nepal
Particulate matter
Environmental Sciences
MD Multidisciplinary
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Medicine
Epidemiology, Public Health and Primary Care



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