Strain rate dependency of fractures of immature bone

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Title: Strain rate dependency of fractures of immature bone
Author(s): Cheong, VS
Karunaratne, A
Amis, AA
Bull, AMJ
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Radiological features alone do not allow the discrimination between accidental paediatric long bone fractures or those sustained by child abuse. Therefore, there is a clinical need to elucidate the mechanisms behind each fracture to provide a forensic biomechanical tool for the vulnerable child. Four-point bending and torsional loading tests were conducted at more than one strain rate for the first time on immature bone, using a specimen-specific alignment system, to characterise structural behaviour at para-physiological strain rates. The bones behaved linearly to the point of fracture in all cases and transverse, oblique, and spiral fracture patterns were consistently reproduced. The results showed that there was a significant difference in bending stiffness between transverse and oblique fractures in four-point bending. For torsional loading, spiral fractures were produced in all cases with a significant difference in the energy and obliquity to fracture. Multiple or comminuted fractures were seen only in bones that failed at a higher stress or torque for both loading types. This demonstrates the differentiation of fracture patterns at different strain rates for the first time for immature bones, which may be used to match the case history given of a child and the fracture produced.
Publication Date: 2-Nov-2016
Date of Acceptance: 16-Oct-2016
ISSN: 1751-6161
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 68
End Page: 76
Journal / Book Title: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Volume: 66
Sponsor/Funder: The Royal British Legion
Funder's Grant Number: Centre for Blast Injury Studie
Copyright Statement: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
Keywords: Child abuse
In-vitro biomechanical testing
Non-accidental injury
Oblique fracture
Structural stiffness
Biomedical Engineering
0903 Biomedical Engineering
0912 Materials Engineering
0913 Mechanical Engineering
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

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