Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae

Title: Lower airway colonization and inflammatory response in COPD: a focus on Haemophilus influenzae
Authors: Finney, LJ
Ritchie, A
Pollard, E
Johnston, SL
Mallia, P
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients is common both in stable patients and during acute exacerbations. The most frequent bacteria detected in COPD patients is Haemophilus influenzae, and it appears this organism is uniquely adapted to exploit immune deficiencies associated with COPD and to establish persistent infection in the lower respiratory tract. The presence of bacteria in the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD is termed colonization; however, there is increasing evidence that this is not an innocuous phenomenon but is associated with airway inflammation, increased symptoms, and increased risk for exacerbations. In this review, we discuss host immunity that offers protection against H. influenzae and how disturbance of these mechanisms, combined with pathogen mechanisms of immune evasion, promote persistence of H. influenzae in the lower airways in COPD. In addition, we examine the role of H. influenzae in COPD exacerbations, as well as interactions between H. influenzae and respiratory virus infections, and review the role of treatments and their effect on COPD outcomes. This review focuses predominantly on data derived from human studies but will refer to animal studies where they contribute to understanding the disease in humans.
Issue Date: 13-Oct-2014
Date of Acceptance: 18-Aug-2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/41552
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S54477
ISSN: 1176-9106
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Start Page: 1119
End Page: 1132
Journal / Book Title: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Volume: 9
Copyright Statement: © 2014 Finney et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0 / . Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. Permissions beyond the scope of the License are administered by Dove Medical Press Limited. Information on how to request permission may be found at: http://www.dovepress.com/permissions.php
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Funder's Grant Number: G1000758
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Respiratory System
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Haemophilus influenzae
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
Respiratory viruses
Vaccination
Obstructive-Pulmonary-Disease
Human respiratory-tract
Human alveolar macrophages
Human epithelial-cells
Membrane protein P2
Chronic bronchitis
Acute exacerbations
Middle-ear
Bacterial-colonization
Systemic inflammation
Haemophilus influenzae
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
Respiratory viruses
Vaccination
Adaptive Immunity
Animals
Haemophilus Infections
Haemophilus Vaccines
Haemophilus influenzae
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Humans
Immunity, Innate
Lung
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiratory Tract Infections
Lung
Animals
Humans
Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus Infections
Respiratory Tract Infections
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Haemophilus Vaccines
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Immunity, Innate
Adaptive Immunity
Respiratory System
Cardiovascular Medicine And Haematology
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine



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