A Wearable In-Ear Encephalography Sensor for Monitoring Sleep: Preliminary Observations from Nap Studies

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Title: A Wearable In-Ear Encephalography Sensor for Monitoring Sleep: Preliminary Observations from Nap Studies
Authors: Looney, D
Goverdovsky, V
Rosenzweig, I
Morrell, MJ
Mandic, DP
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: RATIONALE: To date the only quantifiable measure of neural changes that define sleep is electroencephalography (EEG). Although widely used for clinical testing, scalp-electrode EEG is costly and poorly tolerated by sleeping patients. OBJECTIVES: This is a pilot study to assess the agreement between EEG recordings obtained from a new ear-EEG sensor and those obtained simultaneously from standard scalp electrodes. METHODS: Participants were 4 healthy men, ages 25 to 36 years. During naps, EEG tracings were recorded simultaneously from the ear sensor and standard scalp electrodes. A clinical expert, blinded to the data collection, analyzed 30-second epochs of recordings from both devices using standardized criteria. The agreement between scalp- and ear-recordings was assessed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We scored 360 epochs (scalp-EEG and ear-EEG) of which 254 (70.6%) were scored as non-rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep using scalp-EEG. The ear-EEG sensor had a sensitivity of 0.88 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.92) and specificity of 0.78 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.84) in detecting N2/N3 sleep. The kappa coefficient, between the scalp- and ear-EEG, was 0.65 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.73). As a sleep monitor (all NREM sleep stages versus wake), the in-ear sensor had a sensitivity of 0.91 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.94) and specificity of 0.66 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.75). The kappa coefficient was 0.60 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial agreement was observed between recordings derived from a new ear-EEG sensor and conventional scalp electrodes on 4 healthy volunteers during daytime naps.
Issue Date: 29-Sep-2016
Date of Acceptance: 8-May-2016
ISSN: 2329-6933
Publisher: American Thoracic Society
Start Page: 2229
End Page: 2233
Journal / Book Title: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Volume: 13
Issue: 12
Copyright Statement: Originally Published in Annals of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright © 2016 by the American Thoracic Society. The final publication is available at
Keywords: nocturnal EEG
obstructive sleep apnea
sleep-disordered breathing
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
National Heart and Lung Institute
Airway Disease
Faculty of Medicine

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