MRI based preterm white matter injury classification: the importance of sequential imaging in determining severity of injury

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Title: MRI based preterm white matter injury classification: the importance of sequential imaging in determining severity of injury
Authors: Martinez-Biarge, M
Groenendaal, F
Kersbergen, KJ
Benders, MJ
Foti, F
Cowan, FM
De Vries, LS
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: The evolution of non-hemorrhagic white matter injury (WMI) based on sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been well studied. Our aim was to describe sequential MRI findings in preterm infants with non-hemorrhagic WMI and to develop an MRI classification system for preterm WMI based on these findings.Eighty-two preterm infants (gestation ≤35 weeks) were retrospectively included. WMI was diagnosed and classified based on sequential cranial ultrasound (cUS) and confirmed on MRI.138 MRIs were obtained at three time-points: early (<2 weeks; n = 32), mid (2-6 weeks; n = 30) and term equivalent age (TEA; n = 76). 63 infants (77%) had 2 MRIs during the neonatal period. WMI was non-cystic in 35 and cystic in 47 infants. In infants with cystic-WMI early MRI showed extensive restricted diffusion abnormalities, cysts were already present in 3 infants; mid MRI showed focal or extensive cysts, without acute diffusion changes. A significant reduction in the size and/or extent of the cysts was observed in 32% of the infants between early/mid and TEA MRI. In 4/9 infants previously seen focal cysts were no longer identified at TEA. All infants with cystic WMI showed ≥2 additional findings at TEA: significant reduction in WM volume, mild-moderate irregular ventriculomegaly, several areas of increased signal intensity on T1-weighted-images, abnormal myelination of the PLIC, small thalami.In infants with extensive WM cysts at 2-6 weeks, cysts may be reduced in number or may even no longer be seen at TEA. A single MRI at TEA, without taking sequential cUS data and pre-TEA MRI findings into account, may underestimate the extent of WMI; based on these results we propose a new MRI classification for preterm non-hemorrhagic WMI.
Issue Date: 3-Jun-2016
Date of Acceptance: 11-May-2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal / Book Title: PLOS One
Volume: 11
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © 2016 Martinez-Biarge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keywords: General Science & Technology
MD Multidisciplinary
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: e0156245
Appears in Collections:Clinical Sciences
Imaging Sciences
Faculty of Medicine

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