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Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity.

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Title: Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity.
Authors: Owen, DR
Wood, DM
Archer, JR
Dargan, PI
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: There has been a global increase in the availability and use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) over the last decade. Phenibut (β-phenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid) is a GABAB agonist that is used as an NPS. Here, we bring together published scientific and grey information sources to further understand the prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity of phenibut. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Internet snapshot methodology, we undertook an English language Internet snapshot survey in May 2015 to gather information on the availability and price of phenibut from Internet NPS retailers. To gather information on prevalence of use, desired effects and/or adverse effects, we searched grey literature (online drug discussion forums) and medical literature (PubMed and abstracts from selected International Toxicology conferences). RESULTS: We found 48 unrelated Internet suppliers selling phenibut in amounts ranging from 5 g (US$1.60, £1.01/g) to 1000 kg (US$0.23, £0.14/g). Capsules containing 200-500 mg of phenibut were available in packs of between 6 (US$4.45, £2.80/g) and 360 (US$0.43, £0.27/g). According to the grey literature, phenibut is taken for its anxiolytic and euphoric properties, with tolerance and withdrawal syndromes commonly reported adverse effects. Phenibut is taken orally at an average dose of 2.4 g. Case reports in the medical literature feature users who present to emergency departments heavily sedated or experiencing withdrawal. There have been no reported deaths relating to phenibut use. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Phenibut is readily available in the UK from Internet sites selling NPS. Its desired and adverse effects appear similar to other gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists. [Owen DR, Wood DM, Archer JRH, Dargan PI. Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015;00:000-000].
Issue Date: 23-Dec-2015
Date of Acceptance: 22-Sep-2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/30073
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12356
ISSN: 1465-3362
Publisher: Wiley
Start Page: 591
End Page: 596
Journal / Book Title: Drug and Alcohol Review
Volume: 35
Issue: 5
Copyright Statement: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Owen, D. R., Wood, D. M., Archer, J. R. H., and Dargan, P. I. (2015) Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug and Alcohol Review, , which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dar.12356. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.
Keywords: GABA
GABAB
NPS
acute toxicity
availability
phenibut
prevalence of use
recreational drug
Substance Abuse
11 Medical And Health Sciences
16 Studies In Human Society
17 Psychology And Cognitive Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Department of Medicine (up to 2019)



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