|Abstract: ||The collection of data though environmental monitoring is critical to the success of integrated water management, therefore this PhD investigated its role in the management of surface water bodies, providing recommendations for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD).
The monitoring requirements of the WFD have been reviewed and a comparison to previous arrangements in England and Wales was made. Findings demonstrated the challenges associated with a transition from established networks to those that support more integrated approaches. Using a river basin in England the role of monitoring in both ecological and chemical assessments was evaluated. Results revealed the need to evaluate data produced and ensure that networks are risk based and adaptive, both responding to and aiding understanding of the processes that determine water quality. The need to supplement regulatory monitoring with technical analyses to understand source-pathways-receptor models for contaminants, along with the need to combine chemical and biological assessments so that the risks to ecosystems can be identified was highlighted. The use of data to enable the identification and management of the pressures on surface water bodies was then explored. It was demonstrated that a systems approach to understanding the interactions between the abiotic, biotic and functioning of the ecosystem was needed so that pressures could be managed sustainably. The need to monitor the effectiveness of measures implemented to improve water bodies was also highlighted, with examples of both the structural and functional elements that could be used provided. Finally, recommendations on the communicating of data to stakeholders, along with their involvement in the management and monitoring of water bodies, were made.
This work highlights the potential role monitoring has in the successful implementation of the WFD, demonstrating the need for review and flexibility in monitoring networks, along with frameworks which enable monitoring to contribute to understanding of ecosystems and allow collaboration and knowledge sharing within decision making processes.|