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Distinct airway epithelial immune responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1

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Title: Distinct airway epithelial immune responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1
Authors: Stolting, H
Baillon, L
Frise, R
Bonner, K
Hewitt, RJ
Molyneaux, PL
Gore, ML
Barclay, WS
Saglani, S
Lloyd, CM
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Children are less likely than adults to suffer severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), while influenza A H1N1 severity is comparable across ages except for the very young or elderly. Airway epithelial cells play a vital role in the early defence against viruses via their barrier and immune functions. We investigated viral replication and immune responses in SARS-CoV-2-infected bronchial epithelial cells from healthy paediatric (n = 6; 2.5–5.6 years old) and adult (n = 4; 47–63 years old) subjects and compared cellular responses following infection with SARS-CoV-2 or Influenza A H1N1. While infection with either virus triggered robust transcriptional interferon responses, including induction of type I (IFNB1) and type III (IFNL1) interferons, markedly lower levels of interferons and inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-8) were released following SARS-CoV-2 compared to H1N1 infection. Only H1N1 infection caused disruption of the epithelial layer. Interestingly, H1N1 infection resulted in sustained upregulation of SARS-CoV-2 entry factors FURIN and NRP1. We did not find any differences in the epithelial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection between paediatric and adult cells. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 had diminished potential to replicate, affect morphology and evoke immune responses in bronchial epithelial cells compared to H1N1.
Issue Date: 15-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance: 16-Jun-2022
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/98447
DOI: 10.1038/s41385-022-00545-4
ISSN: 1933-0219
Publisher: Springer Nature [academic journals on nature.com]
Start Page: 952
End Page: 963
Journal / Book Title: Mucosal Immunology
Volume: 15
Copyright Statement: © The Author(s) 2022. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Sponsor/Funder: Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: 108818/Z/15/Z and 108818/Z/15/
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Immunology
CELL
INFLUENZA
COVID-19
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CHILDREN
Breathing Together Consortium
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Immunology
CELL
INFLUENZA
COVID-19
EPIDEMIOLOGY
CHILDREN
Immunology
06 Biological Sciences
11 Medical and Health Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2022-07-15
Appears in Collections:Department of Immunology and Inflammation
Department of Infectious Diseases
National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine
Imperial College London COVID-19



This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons