Investigation of blast-induced cerebrospinal fluid cavitation: Insights from a simplified head surrogate

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Title: Investigation of blast-induced cerebrospinal fluid cavitation: Insights from a simplified head surrogate
Authors: Yu, X
Wu, T
Nguyen, T-TN
Ghajari, M
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Blast induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been a prevalent injury in recent conflicts. Post-mortem studies have shown damage in the brain tissue close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bTBI cases compared to non-blast TBI cases. CSF cavitation is a potential mechanism for this brain/CSF interface injury. In this study, our aim was to explore the possibility and mechanism of blast induced CSF cavitation. We first developed a one-dimensional simplified human head surrogate and exposed it to nonlethal blast waves using a shock tube. High-speed videography and pressure sensors data showed the formation and collapse of cavitation in the CSF simulant. Then, we explored the mechanism of the cavitation using a finite element model of the head surrogate. We found that the pressure waves transmitting through the skull (outer wave) and tissue simulants (inner wave) are responsible for the generation and collapse of the cavitation bubbles, respectively. Next, we used this insight to explore the possibility of CSF cavitation in the human head using a detailed finite element model. The simulations verified the role of the inner and outer waves in the generation and collapse of cavitation. Our results suggested that CSF cavitation is likely to happen in the human head under blast loading. Finally, we studied the CSF cavitation in head surrogate models with different lengths. The results showed that the head length significantly affected the CSF cavitation, indicating the potential drawback of using small animals to study bTBI in human head. Our findings can improve our understanding of the brain/CSF interface injury after blast exposure and inform the design of protection systems and animal tests.
Issue Date: Apr-2022
Date of Acceptance: 29-Dec-2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2021.104146
ISSN: 0734-743X
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Start Page: 1
End Page: 9
Journal / Book Title: International Journal of Impact Engineering
Volume: 162
Copyright Statement: © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence
Sponsor/Funder: The Royal British Legion
Funder's Grant Number: BMPF_P60304
Keywords: Science & Technology
Engineering, Mechanical
Cerebrospinal fluid cavitation
Traumatic brain injury
Blast TBI
0901 Aerospace Engineering
0905 Civil Engineering
0913 Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering & Transports
Publication Status: Published
Embargo Date: 2023-01-01
Article Number: 104146
Online Publication Date: 2022-01-02
Appears in Collections:Dyson School of Design Engineering

This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons