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Right ventricular biomechanics in pulmonary hypertension

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Title: Right ventricular biomechanics in pulmonary hypertension
Authors: Attard, Mark Ivan
Item Type: Thesis or dissertation
Abstract: As outcome in pulmonary hypertension is strongly associated with progressive right ventricular dysfunction, the work in this thesis seeks to determine the regional distribution of forces on the right ventricle, its geometry, and deformations subsequent to load. This thesis contributes to the understanding of how circulating biomarkers of energy metabolism and stress-response pathways are related to adverse cardiac remodelling and functional decompensation. A numerical model of the heart was used to derive a three-dimensional representation of right ventricular morphology, function and wall stress in pulmonary hypertension patients. This approach was tested by modelling the effect of pulmonary endarterectomy in patients with chronic thromboembolic disease. The relationship between the cardiac phenotype and 10 circulating metabolites, known to be associated with all-cause mortality, was assessed using mass univariate regression. Increasing afterload (mean pulmonary artery pressure) was significantly associated with hypertrophy of the right ventricular inlet and dilatation, indicative of global eccentric remodelling, and decreased systolic excursion. Right ventricular ejection fraction was found to be negatively associated with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate, N-formylmethionine, and fumarate. Wall stress was related to all-cause mortality and its decrease after pulmonary endarterectomy was associated with a fall in brain natriuretic peptide. Six metabolites were associated with elevated end-systolic wall stress: dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, N2,N2-dimethylguanosine, N1-methylinosine, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate, N-acetylmethionine, and N-formylmethionine. Metabolic profiles related to energy metabolism and stress-response are associated with elevations in right ventricular end-systolic wall stress that have prognostic significance in pulmonary hypertension patients. These results show that statistical parametric mapping can give regional information on the right ventricle and that metabolic phenotyping, as well as predicting outcomes, provides markers informative of the biomechanical status of the right ventricle in pulmonary hypertension.
Content Version: Open Access
Issue Date: Jun-2020
Date Awarded: Jun-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/95835
DOI: https://doi.org/10.25560/95835
Copyright Statement: Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial Licence
Supervisor: Wilkins, Martin
Sponsor/Funder: Wellcome Trust (London, England)
Funder's Grant Number: 100211/Z/12/Z
Department: Medicine
Publisher: Imperial College London
Qualification Level: Doctoral
Qualification Name: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute PhD theses

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