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Bacterial lymphatic metastasis in infection and immunity

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Title: Bacterial lymphatic metastasis in infection and immunity
Authors: Siggins, MK
Sriskandan, S
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Lymphatic vessels permeate tissues around the body, returning fluid from interstitial spaces back to the blood after passage through the lymph nodes, which are important sites for adaptive responses to all types of pathogens. Involvement of the lymphatics in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections is not well studied. Despite offering an obvious conduit for pathogen spread, the lymphatic system has long been regarded to bar the onward progression of most bacteria. There is little direct data on live virulent bacteria, instead understanding is largely inferred from studies investigating immune responses to viruses or antigens in lymph nodes. Recently, we have demonstrated that extracellular bacterial lymphatic metastasis of virulent strains of Streptococcus pyogenes drives systemic infection. Accordingly, it is timely to reconsider the role of lymph nodes as absolute barriers to bacterial dissemination in the lymphatics. Here, we summarise the routes and mechanisms by which an increasing variety of bacteria are acknowledged to transit through the lymphatic system, including those that do not necessarily require internalisation by host cells. We discuss the anatomy of the lymphatics and other factors that influence bacterial dissemination, as well as the consequences of underappreciated bacterial lymphatic metastasis on disease and immunity.
Issue Date: 23-Dec-2021
Date of Acceptance: 16-Dec-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/93527
DOI: 10.3390/cells11010033
ISSN: 2073-4409
Publisher: MDPI AG
Journal / Book Title: Cells
Volume: 11
Issue: 1
Copyright Statement: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Sponsor/Funder: BactiVac Network (MRC, BBSRC, GCRF)
Medical Research Council
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Yuhan Corporation
Medical Research Council
Funder's Grant Number: UOB044132
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/11/1/33
Article Number: ARTN 33
Appears in Collections:Department of Infectious Diseases
National Heart and Lung Institute

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