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Nitric oxide synthase neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are NREM and REM sleep-active and lower body temperature

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Title: Nitric oxide synthase neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are NREM and REM sleep-active and lower body temperature
Authors: Harding, EC
Ba, W
Zahir, R
Yu, X
Yustos, R
Hsieh, B
Lignos, L
Vyssotski, AL
Merkle, FT
Constandinou, TG
Franks, NP
Wisden, W
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: When mice are exposed to external warmth, nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) neurons in the median and medial preoptic (MnPO/MPO) hypothalamus induce sleep and concomitant body cooling. However, how these neurons regulate baseline sleep and body temperature is unknown. Using calcium photometry, we show that NOS1 neurons in MnPO/MPO are predominantly NREM and REM active, especially at the boundary of wake to NREM transitions, and in the later parts of REM bouts, with lower activity during wakefulness. In addition to releasing nitric oxide, NOS1 neurons in MnPO/MPO can release GABA, glutamate and peptides. We expressed tetanus-toxin light-chain in MnPO/MPO NOS1 cells to reduce vesicular release of transmitters. This induced changes in sleep structure: over 24 h, mice had less NREM sleep in their dark (active) phase, and more NREM sleep in their light (sleep) phase. REM sleep episodes in the dark phase were longer, and there were fewer REM transitions between other vigilance states. REM sleep had less theta power. Mice with synaptically blocked MnPO/MPO NOS1 neurons were also warmer than control mice at the dark-light transition (ZT0), as well as during the dark phase siesta (ZT16-20), where there is usually a body temperature dip. Also, at this siesta point of cooled body temperature, mice usually have more NREM, but mice with synaptically blocked MnPO/MPO NOS1 cells showed reduced NREM sleep at this time. Overall, MnPO/MPO NOS1 neurons promote both NREM and REM sleep and contribute to chronically lowering body temperature, particularly at transitions where the mice normally enter NREM sleep.
Issue Date: 14-Oct-2021
Date of Acceptance: 15-Sep-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/92664
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2021.709825
ISSN: 1662-453X
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Journal / Book Title: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Volume: 15
Copyright Statement: © 2021 Harding, Ba, Zahir, Yu, Yustos, Hsieh, Lignos, Vyssotski, Merkle, Constandinou, Franks and Wisden. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Sponsor/Funder: Wellcome Trust
UK DRI Ltd
Wellcome Trust
Funder's Grant Number: 107841/Z/15/Z
DRI-CORE2020-IMP
220759/Z/20/Z
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Neurosciences
Neurosciences & Neurology
preoptic hypothalamus
nitric oxide
sleep
calcium photometry
body temperature
tetanus-toxin light-chain
THERMOSENSORY PATHWAY
ACTIVATION
PROTEINS
body temperature
calcium photometry
nitric oxide
preoptic hypothalamus
sleep
tetanus-toxin light-chain
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Neurosciences
Neurosciences & Neurology
preoptic hypothalamus
nitric oxide
sleep
calcium photometry
body temperature
tetanus-toxin light-chain
THERMOSENSORY PATHWAY
ACTIVATION
PROTEINS
1109 Neurosciences
1701 Psychology
1702 Cognitive Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2021.709825/full
Article Number: ARTN 709825
Appears in Collections:Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Faculty of Natural Sciences



This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons