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Sharing electronic health records with patients: Who is using the Care Information Exchange portal? A cross-sectional study

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Title: Sharing electronic health records with patients: Who is using the Care Information Exchange portal? A cross-sectional study
Authors: Neves, AL
Smalley, K
Freise, L
Harrison, P
Darzi, A
Mayer, E
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Background: Sharing electronic health records with patients has been shown to improve patient safety and quality of care, and patient portals represent a powerful and convenient tool to enhance patient access to their own healthcare data. However, the success of patient portals will only be possible through sustained adoption by its end-users: the patients. A better understanding of the characteristics of users and non-users is critical to understand which groups remain underserved or excluded from using such tools. Objective: To identify the determinants of usage of the Care Information Exchange (CIE), a shared patient portal program in the United Kingdom. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, using an online questionnaire. Information collected included age, gender, ethnicity, educational level, health status, postcode and digital literacy. Registered individuals were defined as having had an account created in the portal, independent of their actual use of the platform; users were defined as having ever used the portal. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the probability of being a user. Statistical analysis was performed in R, and Tableau ® was used to create maps of the proportion of CIE users by postcode area. Results: A total of 1,083 subjects replied to the survey (+186% of the estimated minimum target sample). The proportion of users was 61.6% (n=667), and within these, the majority (57.7%, n=385) used the portal at least once a month. To characterise the users and non-users of the system, we performed a sub-analysis of the sample, including only participants that had provided at least information regarding gender and age category. The sub-analysis included 650 individuals (59.8% women, 84.8% over 40 years). The majority of the subjects were white (76.6%, n=498), resident in London (64.7%, n=651), and lived in North West London (55.9%, n=363). Individuals with a higher educational degree (undergraduate/professional or postgraduate/higher) had higher odds of being a portal user (adjusted OR = 1.58 (95%CI [1.04 - 2.39]), and 2.38 (95%CI [1.42 - 4.02], respectively), compared to those with a secondary degree or below. Higher digital literacy scores ((≥30) were also associated with higher odds of being a user (adjusted OR = 2.96 (95%CI [2.02 - 4.35]). Those with a good overall health status had lower odds of being a user (adjusted OR = 0.58 (95%CI [0.37 - 0.91]). Conclusion: This work adds to the growing body of evidence highlighting the importance of educational aspects (educational level and digital literacy) in the adoption of patient portals. It is critical that further research not only describes, but also systematically addresses these inequalities through patient-centred interventions aiming to reduce the digital divide. Healthcare providers and policymakers must partner in investing and delivering strategic programs that improve access to technology and digital literacy, in an effort to improve digital inclusion and reduce inequities in delivery of care.
Issue Date: 11-Nov-2021
Date of Acceptance: 9-Aug-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/90996
DOI: 10.2196/23481
ISSN: 1438-8871
Publisher: JMIR Publications
Start Page: 1
End Page: 12
Journal / Book Title: Jornal of Medical Internet Research
Volume: 13
Issue: 11
Copyright Statement: ©Ana Luisa Neves, Katelyn R Smalley, Lisa Freise, Paul Harrison, Ara Darzi, Erik K Mayer. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (https://www.jmir.org), 11.11.2021. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on https://www.jmir.org/, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
Sponsor/Funder: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
National Institute for Health Research
National Institute for Health Research
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
The Health Foundation
NHS North West London CCG
Funder's Grant Number: FIN16-79560
Keywords: electronic health records
patient participation
patient portals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delivery of Health Care
Electronic Health Records
Patient Portals
Surveys and Questionnaires
Medical Informatics
08 Information and Computing Sciences
11 Medical and Health Sciences
17 Psychology and Cognitive Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Open Access location: https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/23481
Online Publication Date: 2021-11-11
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer
Faculty of Medicine
Institute of Global Health Innovation

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