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Immunotherapy-related cystitis: case report and review of the literature

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Title: Immunotherapy-related cystitis: case report and review of the literature
Authors: Zhu, L
Wang, Z
Stebbing, J
Wang, Z
Peng, L
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) including anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (anti-CTLA4) and anti-programmed death cell protein 1 (anti-PD1) have extended patient survival benefit and revolutionized cancer treatment. As ICIs rely on immune regeneration to eliminate tumor cells, they can also lead to an imbalance of immune reactions often called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Rare irAEs such as ocular or cardiac toxicity or vasculitis are seen in less than 1% of patients receiving ICIs. Immune-related cystitis remains a rare occurrence. Herein, we describe a patient with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and a history of syphilis with a complete response to second-line treatment using nivolumab plus paclitaxel who complained of urinary irritation symptoms. At biopsy, we found infiltration of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the urothelium. Although there are reports describing immune-related cystitis in cancer patients, our case has comprehensive pathological confirmation and a differentiation diagnosis. In this report, we review other cases to elucidate clinical characteristics and discuss suitable management of this rare irAE.
Date of Acceptance: 19-Jul-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/90953
DOI: 10.2147/ott.s321965
ISSN: 1178-6930
Publisher: Dove Medical Press
Start Page: 4321
End Page: 4328
Journal / Book Title: OncoTargets and Therapy
Volume: 2021
Issue: 14
Copyright Statement: © 2021 Zhu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms (https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php)
Sponsor/Funder: National Institute for Health Research
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
Funder's Grant Number: NIHR-RP-011-053
RDB01 79560
Keywords: 1112 Oncology and Carcinogenesis
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2021-07-31
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer

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