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Chloroplasts alter their morphology and accumulate at the pathogen interface during infection by Phytophthora infestans

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Title: Chloroplasts alter their morphology and accumulate at the pathogen interface during infection by Phytophthora infestans
Authors: Bozkurt, O
Savage, Z
Duggan, C
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Upon immune activation, chloroplasts switch off photosynthesis, produce anti-microbial compounds, and associate with the nucleus through tubular extensions called stromules. Although it is well-established that chloroplasts alter their position in response to light, little is known about the dynamics of chloroplasts movement in response to pathogen attack. Here, we report that chloroplasts accumulate at the pathogen interface during infection by the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, associating with the specialized membrane that engulfs the pathogen haustorium. Chemical inhibition of actin polymerization reduces the accumulation of chloroplasts at the pathogen haustoria, suggesting this process is partially dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. However, chloroplast accumulation at haustoria does not necessarily rely on movement of the nucleus to this interface and is not affected by light conditions. Stromules are typically induced during infection, embracing haustoria and facilitating chloroplast interactions, to form dynamic organelle clusters. We found that infection-triggered stromule formation relies on BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) mediated surface immune signaling, whereas chloroplast repositioning towards haustoria does not. Consistent with the defense-related induction of stromules, effector mediated suppression of BAK1 mediated immune signaling reduced stromule formation during infection. On the other hand, immune recognition of the same effector stimulated stromules, presumably via a different pathway. These findings implicate chloroplasts in a polarized response upon pathogen attack and point to more complex functions of these organelles in plant-pathogen interactions.
Issue Date: Sep-2021
Date of Acceptance: 8-Jul-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/90860
DOI: 10.1111/tpj.15416
ISSN: 0960-7412
Publisher: Society for Experimental Biology
Start Page: 1771
End Page: 1787
Journal / Book Title: The Plant Journal
Volume: 107
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © 2021 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Sponsor/Funder: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: BB/M002462/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Plant Sciences
Phytophthora infestans
chloroplast movement
laser capture
focal immunity
Phytophthora infestans
chloroplast movement
focal immunity
laser capture
Plant Biology & Botany
0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology
0607 Plant Biology
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2021-07-12
Appears in Collections:National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Natural Sciences

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