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Numerical and experimental studies of the hypersonic flow around a cube at incidence

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Title: Numerical and experimental studies of the hypersonic flow around a cube at incidence
Authors: Rees, TW
Bruce, PJK
Fisher, TB
Quinn, MK
Merrifield, JA
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: In order to improve predictions of the on-ground casualty risk associated with the uncontrolled atmospheric reentry of satellites from Low Earth Orbit, there is significant research interest in the development of engineering models of hypersonic heating rates to faceted shapes. A key part of developing such models is generating accurate datasets of the heat fluxes experienced by faceted shapes at various orientations in hypersonic flows. In this work, we use wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulations to study the hypersonic flow around a cuboid geometry at 5◦ incidence in a Mach 5 flow at Reynolds numbers of 79.5 × 103, 109 × 103 and 148 × 103. The wind tunnel data are obtained in the University of Manchester’s High SuperSonic Tunnel and consist of schlieren images and temperature histories collected using infrared thermography. These temperature histories are used to calculate experimental heat fluxes by solving a three-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem. CFD simulations around the same geometry at equivalent free-stream conditions are calculated with the DLR-TAU code. The experimental and CFD results show good agreement both in terms of heat fluxes as well as flow structure. Notable flow structures include wedge-shaped regions of high heat flux which emanate from the windward corners of the cube. Analysis of numerical Q-criterion contours show that these high heat flux regions are caused by vortex structures generated by the expansion at the cube corner. Analysis of the numerical skin friction coefficient shows that even at incidence there is no breakaway separation from the expansion edges of the cube and the flow remains attached throughout. We show that although there is little change in the average heat flux experienced by a cube at 5◦ incidence to the free-stream compared to one at 0◦ incidence, there are significant changes in the heat flux contours over the cubes at these two incidences. Finally, we calculate a number of heating shape factors which can easily be implemented in satellite re-entry and demise prediction analysis tools.
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance: 27-Feb-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/90459
DOI: 10.1016/j.actaastro.2021.02.033
ISSN: 0094-5765
Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Start Page: 75
End Page: 88
Journal / Book Title: ACTA ASTRONAUTICA
Volume: 183
Copyright Statement: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Licence http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: European Space Agency / Estec
Funder's Grant Number: 4000120171/17/NL/MH/GM
Keywords: Science & Technology
Technology
Engineering, Aerospace
Engineering
Infrared thermography
Heat transfer
Inverse methods
Hypersonic
Satellite demise
Incidence
HEAT-TRANSFER
Science & Technology
Technology
Engineering, Aerospace
Engineering
Infrared thermography
Heat transfer
Inverse methods
Hypersonic
Satellite demise
Incidence
HEAT-TRANSFER
0901 Aerospace Engineering
0913 Mechanical Engineering
Aerospace & Aeronautics
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2021-03-15
Appears in Collections:Aeronautics



This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons