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Approaches to treating tuberculosis by encapsulating metal ions and anti-mycobacterial drugs utilizing nano- and microparticle technologies

Title: Approaches to treating tuberculosis by encapsulating metal ions and anti-mycobacterial drugs utilizing nano- and microparticle technologies
Authors: Alzahabi, KH
Usmani, O
Georgiou, TK
Ryan, MP
Robertson, BD
Tetley, TD
Porter, AE
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterial infection that affects a number of human organs, primarily the lungs, but also the liver, spleen, and spine, causing key symptoms of fever, fatigue, and persistent cough, and if not treated properly, can be fatal. Every year, 10 million individuals become ill with active TB resulting with a mortality approximating 1.5 million. Current treatment guidelines recommend oral administration of a combination of first-line anti-TB drugs for at least 6 months. While efficacious under optimum conditions, ‘Directly Observed Therapy Short-course’ (DOTS) is not without problems. The long treatment time and poor pharmacokinetics, alongside drug side effects lead to poor patient compliance and has accelerated the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. All this, combined with the limited number of newly discovered TB drugs to treat MDR-TB and shorten standard therapy time, has highlighted the need for new targeted drug delivery systems. In this respect, there has been recent focus on micro- and nano-particle technologies to prepare organic or/and metal particles loaded with TB drugs to enhance their efficacy by targeted delivery via the inhaled route. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the current epidemiology of TB, and risk factors for progression of latent stage tuberculosis (LTBI) to the active TB. We identify current TB treatment regimens, newly discovered TB drugs, and identify studies that have used micro- or nano-particles technologies to design a reliable inhalation drug delivery system to treat TB more effectively.
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2020
Date of Acceptance: 13-Nov-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/87049
DOI: 10.1042/ETLS20190154
ISSN: 2397-8554
Publisher: Portland Press
Start Page: 581
End Page: 600
Journal / Book Title: Emerging Topics in Life Sciences
Volume: 4
Issue: 6
Copyright Statement: © 2020 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and the Royal Society of Biology and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY)
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics
SILVER NANOPARTICLES
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
LIPID NANOPARTICLES
MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS
OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
PLGA NANOPARTICLES
ZINC NANOPARTICLES
DELIVERY
OPTIMIZATION
MACROPHAGES
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
antibiotics
inhalation
nanoparticles
Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Biology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine - Other Topics
SILVER NANOPARTICLES
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
LIPID NANOPARTICLES
MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS
OXIDE NANOPARTICLES
PLGA NANOPARTICLES
ZINC NANOPARTICLES
DELIVERY
OPTIMIZATION
MACROPHAGES
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2020-12-14
Appears in Collections:Materials
Department of Infectious Diseases
National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Natural Sciences



This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons