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SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow assays for possible use in national covid-19 seroprevalence surveys (REACT2): diagnostic accuracy study

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Title: SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow assays for possible use in national covid-19 seroprevalence surveys (REACT2): diagnostic accuracy study
Authors: Moshe, M
Daunt, A
Flower, B
Simmons, B
Brown, JC
Frise, R
Penn, R
Kugathasan, R
Petersen, C
Stockmann, H
Ashby, D
Riley, S
Atchison, C
Taylor, GP
Satkunarajah, S
Naar, L
Klaber, R
Badhan, A
Rosadas, C
Marchesin, F
Fernandez, N
Sureda-Vives, M
Cheeseman, H
O'Hara, J
Shattock, R
Fontana, G
Pallett, SJC
Rayment, M
Jones, R
Moore, LSP
Ashrafian, H
Cherapanov, P
Tedder, R
McClure, M
Ward, H
Darzi, A
Cooke, GS
Barclay, WS
On behalf of the REACT Study team
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the performance of new lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) suitable for use in a national COVID-19 seroprevalence programme (REACT2). Design: Laboratory sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed for seven LFIAs on a minimum of 200 sera from individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 500 pre-pandemic sera respectively. Three LFIAs were found to have a laboratory sensitivity superior to the finger-prick sensitivity of the LFIA currently used in REACT2 seroprevalence studies (84%). These LFIAs were then further evaluated through finger-prick testing on participants with confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Two LFIAs (Surescreen, Panbio) were evaluated in clinics in June-July, 2020, and a third LFIA (AbC-19) in September, 2020. A Spike protein enzyme-linked immunoassay (S-ELISA) and hybrid double antigen binding assay (DABA) were used as laboratory reference standards. Setting: Laboratory analyses were performed at Imperial College, London and University facilities in London, UK. Research clinics for finger-prick sampling were run in two affiliated NHS trusts. Participants: Sensitivity analysis on sera were performed on 320 stored samples from previous participants in the REACT2 programme with confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Specificity analysis was performed using 1000 pre-pandemic sera. 100 new participants with confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection attended study clinics for finger-prick testing. Main outcome measures: The accuracy of LFIAs in detecting IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to two in-house ELISAs. Results: The sensitivity of seven new LFIAs using sera varied between 69% and 100% (vs S-ELISA/hybrid DABA). Specificity using sera varied between 99.6% and 100%. Sensitivity on finger-prick testing for Panbio, Surescreen and AbC-19 was 77% (CI 61.4 to 88.2), 86% (CI 72.7 to 94.8) and 69% (CI 53.8 to 81.3) respectively vs S-ELISA/hybrid DABA. Sensitivity for sera from matched clinical samples performed on AbC-19 was significantly higher with serum than finger-prick at 92% (CI 81.7 to 98.6) (p=0.01). Antibody titres varied significantly between cohorts. The numbers of positive samples identified by finger-prick in the lowest antibody titre quartile varied between LFIAs. Conclusions: We identify one further LFIA with clinical performance suitable for potential inclusion in seroprevalence studies. However, no test was identified with clearly superior performance to the LFIA currently used in REACT2 seroprevalence surveys, nor with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be considered for routine clinical use.
Issue Date: 2-Mar-2021
Date of Acceptance: 11-Feb-2021
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/86108
ISSN: 0959-535X
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Start Page: 1
End Page: 8
Journal / Book Title: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Volume: 372
Copyright Statement: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
National Institute for Health Research
UK Research and Innovation
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust- BRC Funding
National Institute for Health Research
Department of Health
Abdul Latif Jameel Foundation
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust: Research Capability Funding (RCF)
Funder's Grant Number: MC_PC_19078
9815274 MC_PC_19025
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Medicine, General & Internal
General & Internal Medicine
React study team
General & Internal Medicine
1103 Clinical Sciences
1117 Public Health and Health Services
Publication Status: Published
Online Publication Date: 2021-03-02
Appears in Collections:Department of Surgery and Cancer
Department of Infectious Diseases
Faculty of Medicine
Institute of Global Health Innovation
Imperial College London COVID-19
School of Public Health