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An overview of methods of fine and ultrafine particle collection for physicochemical characterisation and toxicity assessments.

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Title: An overview of methods of fine and ultrafine particle collection for physicochemical characterisation and toxicity assessments.
Authors: Kumar, P
Kalaiarasan, G
Porter, AE
Pinna, A
Kłosowski, MM
Demokritou, P
Chung, KF
Pain, C
Arvind, DK
Arcucci, R
Adcock, IM
Dilliway, C
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Particulate matter (PM) is a crucial health risk factor for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The smaller size fractions, ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5; fine particles) and ≤0.1 μm (PM0.1; ultrafine particles), show the highest bioactivity but acquiring sufficient mass for in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies is challenging. We review the suitability of available instrumentation to collect the PM mass required for these assessments. Five different microenvironments representing the diverse exposure conditions in urban environments are considered in order to establish the typical PM concentrations present. The highest concentrations of PM2.5 and PM0.1 were found near traffic (i.e. roadsides and traffic intersections), followed by indoor environments, parks and behind roadside vegetation. We identify key factors to consider when selecting sampling instrumentation. These include PM concentration on-site (low concentrations increase sampling time), nature of sampling sites (e.g. indoors; noise and space will be an issue), equipment handling and power supply. Physicochemical characterisation requires micro- to milli-gram quantities of PM and it may increase according to the processing methods (e.g. digestion or sonication). Toxicological assessments of PM involve numerous mechanisms (e.g. inflammatory processes and oxidative stress) requiring significant amounts of PM to obtain accurate results. Optimising air sampling techniques are therefore important for the appropriate collection medium/filter which have innate physical properties and the potential to interact with samples. An evaluation of methods and instrumentation used for airborne virus collection concludes that samplers operating cyclone sampling techniques (using centrifugal forces) are effective in collecting airborne viruses. We highlight that predictive modelling can help to identify pollution hotspots in an urban environment for the efficient collection of PM mass. This review provides guidance to prepare and plan efficient sampling campaigns to collect sufficient PM mass for various purposes in a reasonable timeframe.
Issue Date: 20-Feb-2021
Date of Acceptance: 2-Nov-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/84518
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143553
ISSN: 0048-9697
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 1
End Page: 22
Journal / Book Title: Science of the Total Environment
Volume: 756
Copyright Statement: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: EP/T003189/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Life Sciences & Biomedicine
Environmental Sciences
Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Particulate matter
Ultrafine particles
Mass collection
Physicochemical characteristics
Toxicological assessments
Artificial intelligence
PARTICULATE MATTER PM2.5
X-RAY-FLUORESCENCE
AIR-QUALITY
OXIDATIVE STRESS
CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION
COMPOSITION DISTRIBUTIONS
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE
SOURCE APPORTIONMENT
HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS
PERSONAL EXPOSURES
Artificial intelligence
Mass collection
Particulate matter
Physicochemical characteristics
Toxicological assessments
Ultrafine particles
Air Pollutants
Environmental Monitoring
Oxidative Stress
Particle Size
Particulate Matter
Air Pollutants
Environmental Monitoring
Oxidative Stress
Particle Size
Particulate Matter
Artificial intelligence
Mass collection
Particulate matter
Physicochemical characteristics
Toxicological assessments
Ultrafine particles
Environmental Sciences
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: Netherlands
Online Publication Date: 2020-11-06
Appears in Collections:Materials
Computing
Earth Science and Engineering
National Heart and Lung Institute
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty of Natural Sciences
Faculty of Engineering



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