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Report 33: Modelling the allocation and impact of a COVID-19 vaccine

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Title: Report 33: Modelling the allocation and impact of a COVID-19 vaccine
Authors: Hogan, A
Winskill, P
Watson, O
Walker, P
Whittaker, C
Baguelin, M
Haw, D
Lochen, A
Gaythorpe, K
Ainslie, K
Bhatt, S
Boonyasiri, A
Boyd, O
Brazeau, N
Cattarino, L
Charles, G
Cooper, L
Coupland, H
Cucunuba Perez, Z
Cuomo-Dannenburg, G
Donnelly, C
Dorigatti, I
Eales, O
Van Elsland, S
Ferreira Do Nascimento, F
Fitzjohn, R
Flaxman, S
Green, W
Hallett, T
Hamlet, A
Hinsley, W
Imai, N
Jauneikaite, E
Jeffrey, B
Knock, E
Laydon, D
Lees, J
Mellan, T
Mishra, S
Nedjati Gilani, G
Nouvellet, P
Ower, A
Parag, K
Ragonnet-Cronin, M
Siveroni, I
Skarp, J
Thompson, H
Unwin, H
Verity, R
Vollmer, M
Volz, E
Walters, C
Wang, H
Wang, Y
Whittles, L
Xi, X
Muhib, F
Smith, P
Hauck, K
Ferguson, N
Ghani, A
Item Type: Report
Abstract: Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates are now in late-stage trials, with efficacy and safety results expected by the end of 2020. Even under optimistic scenarios for manufacture and delivery, the doses available in 2021 are likely to be limited. Here we identify optimal vaccine allocation strategies within and between countries to maximise health (avert deaths) under constraints on dose supply. We extended an existing mathematical model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission across different country settings to model the public health impact of potential vaccines, using a range of target product profiles developed by the World Health Organization. We show that as supply increases, vaccines that reduce or block infection – and thus transmission – in addition to preventing disease have a greater impact than those that prevent disease alone, due to the indirect protection provided to high-risk groups. We further demonstrate that the health impact of vaccination will depend on the cumulative infection incidence in the population when vaccination begins, the duration of any naturally acquired immunity, the likely trajectory of the epidemic in 2021 and the level of healthcare available to effectively treat those with disease. Within a country, we find that for a limited supply (doses for <20% of the population) the optimal strategy is to target the elderly and other high-risk groups. However, if a larger supply is available, the optimal strategy switches to targeting key transmitters (i.e. the working age population and potentially children) to indirectly protect the elderly and vulnerable. Given the likely global dose supply in 2021 (2 billion doses with a two-dose vaccine), we find that a strategy in which doses are allocated to countries in proportion to their population size is close to optimal in averting deaths. Such a strategy also aligns with the ethical principles agreed in pandemic preparedness planning.
Issue Date: 25-Sep-2020
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/82822
DOI: 10.25561/82822
Start Page: 1
End Page: 21
Copyright Statement: © 2020 The Author(s). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.
Sponsor/Funder: Medical Research Council (MRC)
Abdul Latif Jameel Foundation
Funder's Grant Number: MR/R015600/1
Keywords: COVID19
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Department of Infectious Diseases
Faculty of Medicine
Imperial College London COVID-19
School of Public Health

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